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 Atlántico [246] The road network in Colombia has a length of about 215,000 km of which 23,000 are paved. The populations of the major cities also include mestizos. Co-working spaces have arisen to serve as communities for startups large and small. Colombia is one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries and has the second-highest level of biodiversity in the world. The Caribbean architecture acquires a strong Arabic influence. In 1542, the region of New Granada, along with all other Spanish possessions in South America, became part of the Viceroyalty of Peru, with its capital in Lima. Columbia is currently declining at a rate of 0.00% annually and its population has increased by 4.06% since the most recent census, which recorded a population of 99,615 in 2010. [406], Public spending on education as a proportion of gross domestic product in 2015 was 4.49%. [347][352][353] Marimba music, traditional chants and dances from the Colombia South Pacific region are on UNESCO's Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity. Through the western half of the country, three Andean ranges run north and south. [26], The Organización Nacional Indígena de Colombia (ONIC), founded at the first National Indigenous Congress in 1982, is an organization representing the indigenous peoples of Colombia. Colombia urban population for 2019 was 40,827,302, a 1.8% increase from 2018. 27,388,096 people. The population growth rate for 2016 is estimated to be 0.9%. The population growth rate for 2016 is estimated to be 0.9%. (2007). [320][321][322], Throughout the times, there have been a variety of architectural styles, from those of indigenous peoples to contemporary ones, passing through colonial (military and religious), Republican, transition and modern styles. [90][94] Internal divisions remained between the bipartisan political forces, occasionally igniting very bloody civil wars, the most significant being the Thousand Days' War (1899–1902). It is also the country with the most endemic species of butterflies, is first in orchid species", and had approximately 7,000 species of beetles. 223 años de prensa diaria en Colombia", "Paseo de olla. [63][64], After Great Britain declared war on Spain in 1739, Cartagena quickly became the British forces' top target, but an upset Spanish victory during the War of Jenkins' Ear, a war with Great Britain for economic control of the Caribbean, cemented Spanish dominance in the Caribbean until the Seven Years' War. On 2005 census estimated 42,888,592 inhabitants. Between 1939 and 1940 seven books of poetry were published under the name Stone and Sky in the city of Bogotá that significantly impacted the country; they were edited by the poet Jorge Rojas. [62] To protect the indigenous peoples, several forms of land ownership and regulation were established: resguardos, encomiendas and haciendas.  Chocó, Córdoba [13], The United States has been heavily involved in the conflict since its beginnings, when in the early 1960s the U.S. government encouraged the Colombian military to attack leftist militias in rural Colombia. External debt equals 39.9 percent of gross domestic product. [10], The Population Departement of the United Nations prepared the following estimates. The specific number of spoken languages varies slightly since some authors consider as different languages what others consider to be varieties or dialects of the same language. Tourism generated 556,135 jobs (2.5% of total employment) in 2016. Total population; 1,905,617 (2018 Census) 4.4% of Colombia's population: Regions with significant populations; Colombia: Languages; Indigenous languages and Spanish: Religion; Roman Catholicism, Evangelicalism, Irreligion, Native religions [141], East of the Andes lies the savanna of the Llanos, part of the Orinoco River basin, and in the far southeast, the jungle of the Amazon rainforest. Colombia urban population for 2016 was 38,589,139, a 1.81% increase from 2015. ), definition: age 15 and over can read and write, CIA World Factbook demographic statistics. [270] Some of the largest indigenous groups are the Wayuu,[271] the Paez, the Pastos, the Emberá and the Zenú. [231] The International Center for Tropical Agriculture based in Colombia investigates the increasing challenge of global warming and food security. [164][165] The Senate is elected nationally and the Chamber of Representatives is elected in electoral districts. The oldest archaeological finds are from the Pubenza and El Totumo sites in the Magdalena Valley 100 kilometres (62 mi) southwest of Bogotá. Motorsports also occupies an important place in the sporting preferences of Colombians; Juan Pablo Montoya is a race car driver known for winning 7 Formula One events. The Demography of Colombia is characterized for being the third-most populous country in Latin America, after Mexico and Brazil. [138] 2019–20 Colombian protests are a series of country-wide protests against inequality, police brutality, corruption and in favor of the Colombian peace process. These are Barranquilla, Cartagena, Santa Marta and Buenaventura. [25] The departments of La Guajira, Cauca, Nariño, Córdoba and Sucre have the largest indigenous populations. The changes generated by the new constitution are viewed as positive by Colombian society. Particularly important was the resistance of the Colombian troops at Old Baldy. [228] iNNpulsa, a government body that promotes entrepreneurship and innovation in the country, provides grants to startups, in addition to other services it and institutions like Apps.co provide. A number of other Europeans and North Americans migrated to the country in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, including people from the former USSR during and after the Second World War. [279] In August 2019, Colombia offered citizenship to more than 24,000 children of Venezuelan refugees who were born in Colombia. Desafíos del transporte ferroviario de carga en Colombia. [81][82][83], The territory of the Viceroyalty of New Granada became the Republic of Colombia, organized as a union of the current territories of Colombia, Panama, Ecuador, Venezuela, parts of Guyana and Brazil and north of Marañón River. country comparison to the world: 49. [407], Bachilleres (high-school graduates) may enter into a professional undergraduate career program offered by a university; these programs last up to five years (or less for technical, technological and intermediate professional education, and post-graduate studies), even as much to six to seven years for some careers, such as medicine. Its capital, Bogotá, is the most populated city in the country, with almost 8 million people living there. In addition to the above statistics, 35.9% of Colombians reported that they did not practice their faith actively. [34][35][36], While Colombia remains a mostly Roman Catholic country by baptism numbers, the 1991 Colombian constitution guarantees freedom of religion and all religious faiths and churches are equally free before the law.[37]. [134], Colombia's relations with Venezuela have fluctuated due to ideological differences between both governments. Indigenous people inhabited the territory that is now Colombia by 12,500 BCE. By contrast the narrow and discontinuous Pacific coastal lowlands, backed by the Serranía de Baudó mountains, are sparsely populated and covered in dense vegetation. [1], The Organización Nacional Indígena de Colombia (ONIC), founded at the first National Indigenous Congress in 1982, is an organization representing the indigenous peoples of Colombia.  N. Santander The remaining people either did not respond or replied that they did not know. Native American, Spanish and other European, African, American, Caribbean, and Middle Eastern influences, as well as other Latin American cultural influences, are all present in Colombia's modern culture. [129] The Government began a process of attention and comprehensive reparation for victims of conflict. Colombia's Most Populous Cities [Note 3][Note 4] The indigenous peoples could not be enslaved because they were legally subjects of the Spanish Crown. ROJAS, Diana Marcela. At the beginning of the 20th century, Colombia's population was approximately 4 million. [222], Recent economic growth has led to a considerable increase of new millionaires, including the new entrepreneurs, Colombians with a net worth exceeding US$1 billion. [205] The average national unemployment rate in 2017 was 9.4%,[206] although the informality is the biggest problem facing the labour market (the income of formal workers climbed 24.8% in 5 years while labor incomes of informal workers rose only 9%). Beyond lies the alpine conditions of the forested zone and then the treeless grasslands of the páramos. The largest cities in the country are Bogotá, with 7,387,400 inhabitants, Medellín, with 2,382,399 inhabitants, Cali, with 2,172,527 inhabitants, and Barranquilla, with 1,205,284 inhabitants. Some groups of indigenous people such as the Caribs lived in a state of permanent war, but others had less bellicose attitudes. 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