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wireless communication in hospitals

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In [51, 52], authors proposed to harvest energy for sensors from LED transmitter. RF communication exposes radiation to human and in certain facilities within hospital RF communication is not favorable, generally where highly charged electromagnetic devices are installed. Otherwise the tradeoff between achieved gains and increased complexity will turn negative. In these facilities, the latency of the wireless link can be high for transporting data to the servers for diagnostics. X. Wu, D. Basnayaka, M. Safari, and H. Haas, Two-stage access point selection for hybrid VLC and RF networks. D. R. Dhatchayeny, A. Sewaiwar, S. V. Tiwari, and Y. H. Chung EEG biomedical signal transmission using visible light communication, in 2015 International Conference on Industrial Instrumentation and Control (ICIC), IEEE, pp. M. S. Saud, I. Ahmed, T. Kumpuniemi, and M. Katz, Reconfigurable optical-radio wireless networks: Meeting the most stringent requirements of future communication systems. The disadvantage of implementing fast handover is loss of resources in continuous link monitoring and unnecessary switching in short interruptions that could result in packet loss. The current study raises concerns over the security in VLC. This hybrid wireless network is proposed and further studied in this paper. 9786–9799, 2016. 15, pp. Satellite communication contains two mai… P. K. Sahoo, S. K. Mohapatra and S. L. Wu, Analyzing healthcare big data with prediction for future health condition, IEEE Access, Vol. Nurses were recruited in the ICU to complete a paper questionnaire to assess their … Data is stored both locally and on offshore clouds. Healthcare industry is using RFID technology to adopt leaner supply chain practices associated with manufacturing to pare down cost and improve safety. Wireless Communication Technologies in Healthcare Market Segments, Wireless Communication Technologies in Healthcare Market Dynamics, Historical Actual Market Size, 2012 - 2014, Wireless Communication Technologies in Healthcare Market Size & Forecast 2015 to 2025, Wireless Communication Technologies in Healthcare Market Current Trends/Issues/Challenges, Wireless Communication Technologies in Healthcare Market Drivers and Restraints, Historical, current and projected industry size Recent industry trends, Strategies of key players and product offerings, Potential and niche segments/regions exhibiting promising growth, A neutral perspective towards market performance. The number of wireless devices is increasing very rapidly, and the radio frequency bands are becoming very crowded. S. Ullah, H. Higgins, B. Braem, B. Latre, C. Blondia, I. Moerman and K. S. Kwak, A comprehensive survey of wireless body area networks, Journal of medical Systems, Vol. Advanced Wireless is a leading provider of communication solutions to Senior Living communities throughout the United States. M. Al Ameen, J. Liu and K. Kwak, Security and privacy issues in wireless sensor networks for healthcare applications, Journal of Medical Systems, Vol. W. Noonpakdee, Adaptive wireless optical transmission scheme for health monitoring system, in 2013 IEEE Third International Conference on Consumer Electronics? Such type of medium is called Guided Medium. The brain of this hybrid network is an intelligent software that can respond to dynamic changes of the network, type or requirements of the healthcare scenario, etc., to select the appropriate network or transmission mode. The lighting infrastructure can easily provide a downlink channel, while, uplink connectivity can be supported by installing radio receives on the ceiling or other suitable place. “You have to build a network for coverage, the devices have to work everywhere,” said Reid. Ultra Wide Band (UWB) Previous communication networks for healthcare robots always suffer from high response latency and/or time-consuming computing demands. ZigBee is used in Commercial Applications like sensing an… But for inpatient care and other cases where the patient is not moving, a fairly high sensitivity is required. This study examined predictors of use of wireless communication devices (WCDs) in environments with unique needs (i.e., intensive care unit [ICU]). Wireless technology in healthcare has been associated with communication‐related improvements in workflow; however, there are barriers to adoption. The overall goal of reconfiguration is to make our proposed system flexible to adopt changes and in certain cases user can implement its own policies to meet own requirement. Instant vertical handover (IVHO) is a straight technique, that switches the default optical network to RF as soon as the CSI tells the controller that the optical link is unavailable. 1–6, 2017. • Heart beat sensor is used to measure heart beat rate. The intelligent algorithm is key to attain the maximum throughput from a hybrid system, the complexity of algorithm may increase with network’s sensitivity. 4. Time is critical - our products and applications ensure the right information is sent to the right person at the right time. 1065–1094, 2012. In healthcare IT technology providers increasingly expanding their business in these regions. 1–10, 2017. G. Pan, H. Lei, Z. Ding, and Q. Ni, On 3-D hybrid VLC-RF systems with light energy harvesting and OMA scheme over RF links. The concept of hospital is in continuous development, aiming ultimately at providing the best possible healthcare to patients; balanced, safe and productive working conditions to hospital staff; and comfort to visitors, while operating in an efficient, cost-effective and sustainable manner. In the past decade, visible light communications (VLC) technology has rapidly emerged as a viable way to transmit information wirelessly. VLC is energy efficient due to its nature to provide lighting and communication at the same time. The ROWBAN connects to an AP to share information as shown in Fig. Ahmed, I., Karvonen, H., Kumpuniemi, T. et al. All these issues affect the attractiveness of radio in healthcare scenarios. An important profile for mode selection in ROWBAN is utilizing the power datagram, data transmission is done utilizing one of the five mode that consumes minimum power. 4, pp. The data from these lifesaving devices is examined continuously and stored remotely. Indoor applications of hybrid networks have been predominantly studied [34, 35], as in [34] an indoor application of hybrid optical-radio network is considered to transmit the indoor traffic to base station using a RF relay. It is noted that the notion of “hospital” , as used and understood today, may evolve in the future. Song, A hybrid power line and visible light communication system for indoor hospital applications, Computers in Industry, Vol. R. Liu, and C. Zhang, Dynamic dwell timer for vertical handover in VLC-WLAN heterogeneous networks, in 2017 13th International Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing Conference (IWCMC), IEEE, pp. For data security, cloud computing is very useful for securing data. This paper considers wireless and mobile communications for the hospital of the future. in 2017 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC), IEEE, pp. Efficient Wireless Communication in Healthcare Systems; Design and Performance Evaluation Abstract Increasing number of ageing population and people who need continuous health mon-itoring and rising the costs of health care have triggered the concept of the novel wireless technology-driven human body monitoring. In Wired Communication, the medium is a physical path like Co-axial Cables, Twisted Pair Cables and Optical Fiber Links etc. 262–278, 2016. The U.S. and Canada are spending a huge amount of money in healthcare IT to address chronic diseases. An increasing number of the ageing population who requires continuous health monitoring is one of the factors which have triggered the concept of wireless technology driven human body and is the primary factor driving the adoption of wireless communication technologies in the healthcare industry. Most of these network technologies are based on the use of radio. 179, No. Increasing the distance between a wireless communication device and potentially susceptible medical equipment greatly reduces the risk of EMI. Support services include services for hospital staff, patients, visitors, such as staff facilities, education and training rooms, material supply, pharmacies, kitchen, housekeeping, maintenance, and others. 30, No. Wireless communications have an utmost important role in the HoF as the goal of the concept is to connect all key stakeholders. The paradigm of HoF comprises of a hospital connected in such a way that state-of-the-art healthcare services could be provided to each patient regardless of the limited resources and hospital boundaries [4]. Optical wireless communications (OWC) complement radio and together can create a highly flexible and high-performance network capable to fulfill the stringent requirement of future hospitals. C. X. Wang, F. Haider, X. Gao, X. H. You, Y. Yang, D. Yuan and E. Hepsaydir, Cellular architecture and key technologies for 5G wireless communication networks, IEEE Communications Magazine, Vol. Smartphone and customized wireless healthcare solutions are acting as a catalyst for healthcare institutions to improve patient care in these countries. In terms of current developments of future communication networks, 5G networks are about to be deployed and expected to be highly used in the 2020–2030 decade. This reduces the likelihood that a network outage will cripple hospital operations. However, optimization algorithm development for this task is very complex and challenging since hybrid system includes various type of devices with different needs. J. Ribera, G. Antoja, and M. Rosenmöller, Hospital of the future: a new role for leading hospital in Europe, 2016. in 2014 IEEE Faible Tension Faible Consommation, IEEE, pp. One example is wireless medical telemetry which is a remote monitoring of a patient's health with the help of radio VLC exploits modern solid-state light sources, i.e., white light emitting diodes (LEDs) to create, in addition to illumination, an optical transmission capable to convey information, in the same way that short-range radio transmissions do. Berlin (ICCE-Berlin), IEEE, pp. And thirdly, the usage of VLC will decrease the need for the usage of RF- based communication systems, thus lowering the cumulative SAR load on the patients. VLC has proven effective technology for potential healthcare applications such as remote health monitoring [8] and controlling autonomous robots [9]. In principle, wireless connectivity is needed in each of these spaces. Instead, a wireless communication and alerting system can be set up quickly and used immediately. The optical and RF uplinks (UL) and downlinks (DL) are establish and data transmission is accomplished either solely on optical or radio channels, or the hybrid channels are established combining both optical and radio networks following the certain policies, predefined in reconfiguration software. Certainly, these networks are in practice combined in many ways [21]. Visible light system could be used to also provide energy that would be harvested by ultra-low power sensor devices. H. Karvonen, M. Hämäläinen, J. Iinatti, and C. Pomalaza-Ráez, Coexistence of wireless technologies in medical scenarios, in 2017 European Conference on Networks and Communications (EuCNC), IEEE, pp. M. S. Saud, H. Chowdhury, and M. Katz, Heterogeneous software-defined networks: implementation of a hybrid radio-optical wireless network. 52, No. ZigBee devices are designed for low-power consumption. As the user moves from one cell to another the CSI determines a great role in making handover decisions and a robust decision making algorithm is key for higher performances. Authors would like to thank the Academy of Finland’s support in the project HERONET, where this research work was mainly carried out. in 2017 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC), IEEE, pp. During the bridge collapse in Minneapolis in 2007, cell phone towers were overwhelmed and eventually shut down for emergency transmission of communication from law enforcement. Article  Moreover, cellular technology can also be exploited, for instance deploying 5G (and beyond) picocells within the hospital and other healthcare facilities. Security features must span across the whole hybrid communication system. In case of an unreliable network the potential threat of data loss can threaten the patient’s life becasue partial data could result in wrong or misleading diagnosis. Techopedia explains Wireless Communications Breach of personal health data could 349 be a potential Satellite communication is one type of self contained wireless communication technology, it is widely spread all over the world to allow users to stay connected almost anywhere on the earth. The controller monitors the optical link continuously and the link reinstate as soon as controller gets acknowledgement. Many applications exploit location information of humans and devices equipped with communication transceivers. A university hospital with all the specialist branches of medicine, with the most advanced research and treatment methods, and with large amount of patients and medical staff concentrated into a large building complex sets its own requirements. 3 introduces their communicational requirements. Combining radio and light-based localization is expected to improve remarkably flexibility and accuracy. Light-based communications exploit the idea of visible light communications (VLC), where solid-state luminaries, white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) provide both room illumination as well as optical wireless communications (OWC). Hybrid optical-radio networks are needed to be energy efficient compared to RF in order to meet one of the stringent requirement of HoF, authors in [36] studied hybrid VLC/RF and RF networks. The HoF is explained, in particular from the standpoint of its communications. 1, No. Due to data storage issue, there is a need to use the … Light-based communications, such as VLC is also a highly attractive communication technology for healthcare environments. 1, pp. The policies in reconfigurable algorithm are constructed on dynamic changes that may occur during transmission include UL and DL channel conditions for both optical and radio, service requirement, local policies, service user/operator requirements etc. 5, No. In HoF, the reliability and security of data from ambulatory or home hospital is of great concerns and have given top priority as in Table 1, since the data is transmitted from a distant location the interference or intentional hampering of data can affect the diagnosis. Effective staff communication is essential to every type of business, but none more than the healthcare industry. Wireless Communication Technologies Healthcare market share with predicted implications of corona impact, brand share analysis, lockdown impact assessment, deep-dive competition analysis, market size and historical value analysis, Wireless communication is the transformation of information over a distance without the aid of wires, cables or any other form of electrical conductors. Finally, users network capacity requirements could be diverse, i.e., ranging low to very high. Moreover, a reconfigurable optical-radio body area network (ROWBAN) is introduced as the counterpart network to the reconfigurable hybrid access network. For example, in [30] it was found that the popular Bluetooth low energy (BLE) technology will suffer from interference under a worst-case interference scenario created by ZigBee-based IoT devices. New collaboration mechanisms in IoT devices could improve the current state-of-the-art in the IoT for healthcare, using wireless communications or mobile computing (WCMC). Our healthcare solutions improve: response times, team member’s productivity, safety & security of your staff & residents, and quality of service & care for residents. A hospital habitat comprises of people (e.g., patients, medical staff, visitors), processes (e.g., diagnosis, treatment, management of people, spaces, material, equipment, time, etc. How stringent are these performance figures depends on the type of scenario and particular application considered. These characteristics encourage the use of wireless communications in the HoF to provide connectivity to medical, management and operational staff, patients, visitors, hospital equipment, sensors as well as to control the multiple processes needed to manage the hospital. 54, No. In order to fully exploit these advantages, connected nodes as well as APs of a hospital need to be designed to support hybrid radio-optical networks, a departure from today’s radio-only approach. We propose a highly flexible and versatile reconfigurable hybrid optical-radio wireless communication network for both stationary and ambulatory healthcare. real-time monitoring and data collection of management processes to create rapid and optimized responses. R. Sprow, Planning Hospitals of the Future. Healthcare industry is using RFID technology to adopt leaner supply chain practices associated with manufacturing to pare down cost and improve safety. M. Hensher, N. Edwards and R. Stokes, International trends in the provision and utilisation of hospital care, BMJ, Vol. We argue that optical wireless network can be embedded to an existing RF backbone, the complementary nature of light could prove to be a viable alternative to RF. But for sure, some delay is inevitable. In addition, spectrum congestion and energy efficiency are also clear challenges for radio-based communications systems [12]. The integration of VLC in RF network is shown energy efficient depending on the LED operating power, with the development of low power LED the efficiency of VLC can be further enhanced. Commit to hospital-owned devices. OWC in RF sensitive area. 4. in 2016 IEEE 27th Annual International Symposium on Personal, Indoor, and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC), IEEE, pp. The distance of transmission can range from few meters to thousands of kilometers. However, associated challenges of security, privacy, and spectrum congestion have grown concerns and have motivated researchers to find complementary alternatives. Technology is probably the most important enabler of the HoF concept. Part of Springer Nature. From Table 1, we can see that the reliability of wireless network is highly recommended. For optical-only based communication technology the challenges related to security features implementation are mainly connected with reliability, namely with the need for a LOS channel between the transmitter and in order to achieve maximum data throughput. Open access funding provided by University of Oulu including Oulu University Hospital. In fact, such a universal virtualized software-defined network will chose, combine and optimize technologies (e.g., modulation, coding, use of multidimensional resources, etc.) Hospital can be of many sizes and capabilities, from huge university hospital complexes covering virtually any aspect of medical care till small specialized hospital units, and from public healthcare institutions to private hospitals. The coexistence of optical and RF communication will decrease the spectrum congestion and reduce possible interference problems. Sensitivity means that people are less exposed to RF radiations, that is why a fairly moderate sensitive wireless network is required. D. Seth, and D. Chakraborty, Hidden Markov model and Internet of Things hybrid driven smart hospital. Centre for Wireless Communications (CWC), University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland, Iqrar Ahmed, Heikki Karvonen, Timo Kumpuniemi & Marcos Katz, You can also search for this author in S. I. Hussain, M. M. Abdallah, and K. A. Qaraqe, Hybrid radio-visible light downlink performance in RF sensitive indoor environments. ROWBAN provides a viable solution to monitor several chronic health factors, no matter the patient is stationary or moving, the hybrid optical-radio nodes can play a vital role in transmitting data to the cloud or HoF. 63, No. 170–178, 2015. 15700–15705, 2015. 319, No. The HoF will be digital, wireless and exploit widely artificial intelligence (AI) and big data [19, 20]. 1–2, 2017. 2688–2710, 2010. Int J Wireless Inf Networks 27, 4–17 (2020). Allscripts Healthcare Solutions, Inc., Extreme Networks Inc., Cerner Corporation, Cisco Systems, Inc., and GE Healthcare are some of the leading player dealing with global wireless communication technologies in the healthcare industry. VLC supports high throughput [45] and can transmit bulk data. 5G and beyond systems are moving to higher frequencies to achieve higher throughput which will ease the problem. Iqrar Ahmed. Journal of Public Health Research, Vol. All Rights Reserved. Google Scholar. in 2015 International Symposium on Intelligent Signal Processing and Communication Systems (ISPACS), IEEE, pp. G. López, V. Custodio and J. I. Moreno, LOBIN: E-textile and wireless-sensor-network-based platform for healthcare monitoring in future hospital environments, IEEE Transactions on Information Technology in Biomedicine, Vol. However, with a hybrid system, the challenges are more complex. In this section, we discuss key requirements that are viable for communication technologies at the HoF. Furthermore, if the medical services are decentralized to patients living in their residences, yet different kind of demands will arise. Most popular wireless communication technologies and protocols proposed or used in medical monitoring systems are listed in Table 1. In addition, the support from the Academy of Finland 6Genesis Flagship Project is warmly acknowledged. volume 27, pages4–17(2020)Cite this article. Such network is discussed and its suitability to relevant scenarios is discussed. “Once a hospital moves to that critical communication method you have to make sure it works i… Here we have extended this generic approach of using a RF wireless network embedded with VLC network to construct a reconfigurable hybrid optical-radio network. In [28, 29] authors found that widely used frequency band 2.4 GHz includes many different wireless technologies and they are creating harmful interference to each other. This site uses cookies, including third-party cookies, that help us to provide and improve our services. The report covers exhaustive analysis on: Regional analysis for Wireless Communication Technologies in Healthcare Market includes, Wireless Communication Technologies Healthcare Market. 2, No. In such cases, to ensure seamless communication devising a smooth handover mechanism exposes challenges in Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model. Parallel radio-optical communications can enhance reliability and security. It is very challenging to design and implement enough efficient energy harvesting which operates in tiny sensor nodes. 24, No. 54, No. in Proceedings of UbiHealth, Vol. Based on the UL and DL selected, we have proposed five modes, the hybrid network can switch between these five modes following the dynamic changes and predefined policies in reconfigurable algorithm. Find more on our privacy policy. Radio communications is a well-developed technology, flexible, inexpensive and widely standardized. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10776-019-00468-1, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10776-019-00468-1, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in Unless we decide on the quality of current link and perform handover in a hybrid network. in 2016 IEEE Globecom Workshops (GC Wkshps), IEEE, pp. H. Zhang, J. Li, B. Wen, Y. Xun and J. Liu, Connecting intelligent things in smart hospitals using NB-IoT, IEEE Internet of Things Journal, Vol. As introduced above, there are various potential applications enabled by wireless communication at future hospitals. S. Landers, E. Madigan, B. Leff, R. J. Rosati, B. During the procedures, the patients are examined with several lifesaving medical devices/sensors e.g., electrocardiography (ECG), electroencephalography (EEG) and non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP) within these facilities. 138–140, 2003. https://www.oulu.fi/6gflagship/. Various consideration is required to be made while implementing wireless communication within a healthcare institutions such as systems capacity for transmitting voice, data, and video information as well as its reliability and coverage. Examples include MRI labs, treatment facilities of nuclear medicine and radiation therapy facilities, where the dense shielding and bunker walls do not favor RF. Therefore, it is crucial to support co-existence of different communication technologies in future hospital solutions. Type of wireless communication technology: Bluetooth is the wireless technology used for exchanging data over the short distance using the UHF radio waves. ), technology, and premises. which guides the signal to propagate from one point to other. One can expect that the number of stakeholders connected wirelessly in the HoF will increase substantially. These systems can work through mobile devices, desktops, TVs, tablets and more. RFID is a wireless communication technology used for data transfer and identification of objects using electromagnetic waves. 68, pp. On the other hand, Wireless Communication doesn’t require any physic… OWC particularly VLC, is a complementary approach to radio, being particularly attractive in scenarios where radio fails to provide security, privacy and zero electromagnetic radiation. Following are the advantages of Wireless Communication:➨Flexibility: As wireless frequency penetrates the walls, wireless networks are easy to install anywhere based on choice.This flexibility is one of the great benefits of wireless network where wired cable can not be installed. Robust and high-speed communications and swift processing are critical, sometimes vital in particular in the case of healthcare robots, to the healthcare receivers. The widely popular wireless local area networks (e.g., Wi-Fi), wireless sensor networks (WSN) [22], wireless personal area networks (WPAN) [23] and wireless body area networks (WBAN) [24] are examples of short-range wireless networks technologies that can be used in the HoF. Our solutions are used in hospitals, elderly care facilities and psychiatric clinics all over Europe. Public spaces, such a waiting rooms, 331 canteens are also important social premises of a hospitals, used by many people. The IT spending in healthcare on the rise in the European region. 3, pp. 23, No. Sprow has characterized hospital with five main spaces as inpatient care, ambulatory care diagnostic and treatment, support services and public spaces [31]. As in Figs. There are many proven features that make VLC feasible for healthcare scenarios. Here we will discuss challenges related to visible light technology and hybrid communication (optical + RF) system development to fulfil the desired requirements. Secondly, as the VLC signal can be limited inside one room, it will not leak or cannot be eavesdropped from, e.g., the neighboring rooms or outside. H. Thimbleby, Technology and the future of healthcare. 4, pp. For hybrid system, it is more practical to implement ulpink using infrared communications. Section 5 introduces the challenges associated with the communication systems of HoF. Both radio and optical wireless networks are considered. However the parallel optical-radio transmission can be beneficial solution to enhance the network’s physical layer security when intruded by eavesdropper [50]. X. Li, R. Zhang and L. Hanzo, Cooperative load balancing in hybrid visible light communications and WiFi, IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. 28, No. G. Blinowski, The feasibility of launching physical layer attacks in visible light communication networks, 2016, arXiv preprint arXiv:1608.07146. 88–97, 2002. PubMed Google Scholar. Certain medical examinations require high throughput which is challenging to achieve in congested RF bands. Reconfigurable optical-radio access points and ROWBAN. Despite of its advantages, there are certain areas where operation of radio systems is not optimum, particularly in the complex and demanding scenarios expected to be encountered in the HoF.

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