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akashi kaikyo bridge engineer

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The Akashi Kaikyo Bridge is also sometimes referred to as the “Pearl Bridge” and is a suspension bridge that crosses the Akashi Strait in Japan. To protect the main cables from corrosion, a dry-air injection system was newly developed and found capable of keeping the relative humidity low enough in the cable bundles. Civil Engineering Disasters – Collapse Of Bridges, Free Civil Engineering Magazines and White Papers, Civil Engineering Notes From Universities, Geotechnical Investigation of a Construction Site, Explain briefly various types of Estimates, Design Calculation of an Isolated Footing, Types of Contracts in Construction Management, Factors Affecting Strength And Workability Of Concrete. The Akashi Kaikyo Bridge (AKB) is a three-span, two-hinged stiffening girder system suspension bridge that spans the Akashi Strait. The Akashi Strait is a busy shipping port, so engineers had to design a bridge that would not block shipping traffic. 1. What are the similarities and differences between the two? Mar 18, 2013 - I am not exactly what people would call a "bridge-nerd", but this one is really impressive and amazingly beautiful. Akashi Kaikyō Bridge, also called “Pearl Bridge”, is located in Japan and considered as Japan’s finest engineering feat. In: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics , v. 88, n. 2-3 (Dezember 2000) , S. 307-324. The Akashi Kaikyō Bridge is a suspension bridge, which links the city of Kobe on the Japanese mainland of Honshu to Iwaya on Awaji Island. Akashi Kaikyo Bridge: Amazing engineering - See 408 traveler reviews, 666 candid photos, and great deals for Hyogo Prefecture, Japan, at Tripadvisor. A fantastic view will be visible from the top of the 300-meter tall pillar. 63-68. It crosses the busy Akashi Strait (Akashi Kaikyō in Japanese) as part of the Honshu–Shikoku Highway. We investigate the Akashi Kaikyo suspension bridge with a main span of 1990 m and two side spans of 960 m, which is the world’s longest suspension bridge as of 2002. Took this picture in a tour that I did with my father when he came Japan to visit me, in June of 2009. You can list yourself here by submitting civil engineering related topics to us. Each anchorage required 350,000 tonnes (340,000 long tons; 390,000 short tons) of concrete. This Strait is located south of the city of Kobe and to the east of the major city of Osaka.. Hyogo Prefecture Tourism; Hyogo Prefecture Hotels; Hyogo Prefecture Bed and Breakfast; Hyogo Prefecture Vacation Rentals; Hyogo Prefecture Vacation Packages This paper describes some of the new technologies used. The Akashi Kaikyō Bridge is a suspension bridge, which links the city of Kobe on the Japanese mainland of Honshu to Iwaya on Awaji Island. Opened on April 5, 1998, became the longest bridge of its kind in the world, surpassing the Humber Bridge in the UK that has a central span of 1,410 meters. Akashi Kaikyo Bridge, which spans the Akashi Strait between Kobe and Awaji island, is the world’s longest suspension bridge. The obstacles in its construction included strong tidal currents in the inland sea, winds that can whip through the strait at speeds over 60 metres a second and the omnipresent possibility of earthquakes. The central span is staggering 1,991 metres (6,532 ft) making it a truly marvelous civil engineer wonder. The Akashi-Kaikyo Bridge was over ten years in the making and is still considered the greatest engineering feat in Japan. Akashi Kaikyō Bridge from the air Other name(s) Pearl bridge Carries 6 lanes of roadway Crosses Akashi Strait [1] Locale Awaji Island and Kobe [1] Maintained by Honshu-Shikoku Bridge Authority Design Suspension bridge [1] Total length 3,911 meters (12,831 ft) Height 282.8 metres (928 ft) (pylons) [1] Longest span 1,991 meters (6,532 ft) [1] What are the advantages of cable-stayed bridges over suspension bridges for span less than 1,000m? a bridge, so when the Akashi Kaikyo was under design, its engineers had the benefit of hindsight to insure that their bridge's deck would not succumb to the wind. The Akashi strait is one of the world’s busiest shipping lanes with 1000 ships plying through it daily. This one is best exmple.,for future generation’s engineers. The bridge was designed by engineer Satoshi Kashima and built by Matsuo Bridge Co., … Located in Japan, Akashi Kaikyo Bridge was completed in 1998 with the purpose of linking the city of Kobe on the mainland of Honsho to Iwaya on Awaji Island by crossing the busy … The bridge is constructed by using two main cables which strech between two towers. Its two towers, at 928 feet, soar higher than any other bridge towers in the world. This is the global website of Obayashi Corporation and the Obayashi Group of companies. Watch later. The Akashi Kaikyo Bridge World tour began in 2005 and is now a key global destination in the burgeoning ‘infrastructure tourism’ sector. It was a testament to Japanese engineering. The Akashi-Kaikyo Bridge also popularly known as the Pearl Bridge, has the longest central span of any suspension bridge. The Akashi–Kaikyo bridge has a total of 1,737 illumination lights: 1,084 for the main cables, 116 for the main towers, 405 for the girders and 132 for the anchorages. Fuchida, Masanobu / Kitagawa, Makoto / Kurino, Sumitaka / Shimomura, Minoru (1998): Design and construction of the Akashi Kaikyo Bridge's superstructure. 1. The two towers were originally 1,990 m (6,530 ft; 1.24 mi) apart, but the Great Hanshin earthquake on January 17, 1995, moved the towers so much (only the towers had been erected at the time) that the span had to be increased by 1 m (3.3 ft). In the construction of a two-span bridge (span length = L) by using span-by-span construction, why is a length of about 1.25L bridge segment is constructed in the first phase of construction? In 2003, hewas named executive director of the Japan Bridge Engineering Center, whose main focus is to inspect and diagnose Japan's national road bridges. The Akashi Kaikyo Bridge in Japan is currently the world's longest suspension bridge. The best achievement. Die Akashi-Kaikyō-Brücke (jap. This paper describes some of the new technologies used. From monitoring and maintenance work on the Akashi Kaikyo Bridge, a super long-span suspension bridge, new information has been obtained. From monitoring and maintenance work on the Akashi Kaikyo Bridge, a super long-span suspension bridge, new information has been obtained. Akashi Kaikyō Bridge from the air Other name(s) Pearl bridge Carries 6 lanes of roadway Crosses Akashi Strait [1] Locale Awaji Island and Kobe [1] Maintained by Honshu-Shikoku Bridge Authority Design Suspension bridge [1] Total length 3,911 meters (12,831 ft) Height 282.8 metres (928 ft) (pylons) [1] Longest span 1,991 meters (6,532 ft) [1] To suppress unexpected … große Brücke der Akashi-Meerenge) ist eine Autobahn-Hängebrücke in Japan. It crosses the busy Akashi Strait (Akashi Kaikyō in Japanese) as part of the Honshu–Shikoku Highway. THE BRIDGE ENGINEERING 2 CONFERENCE AKASHI BRIDGE Wai Tak Yim 1 1University of Bath Civil Engineering Abstract: The aim of this conference paper is to analyse the Akashi Bridge. The fierce winds along the Inland Sea could also have other effects on www.americanscientist.org 2009 May-June 193 The Akashi Kaikyo Suspension Bridge is the longest suspension bridge in the world and it is probably Japan’s greatest engineering feat. The steel cables have 300,000 kilometres (190,000 mi) of wire: each cable is 112 centimetres (44 in) in diameter and contains 36,830 strands of wire. Asked by Wiki User. 1.1 Background of the bridge The Akashi-Kaikyo Bridge, also known as pearl bridge, is a suspension bridge in Japan that crosses the Akashi Strait, it links Maiko in Kobe and Lwaya on Awaji Island as part of the Honshu-Shikoku Highway. • Beam depth directly proportional to the square of the span length. “There are three main bridge connections between Honshu and Shikoku, each with their distinct roles,” explains Nunohiro. The construction of Akashi Kaikyō Bridge began in April 1988 and officially opened on April 5, 1998. When the Golden Gate Bridge was built, at 8,981 feet, it was the longest suspension bridge in the world. The Akashi Kaikyo Bridge that links the City of Kobe in Hyogo Prefecture with Awaji-shima Island. Ursprünglich wurde es vom „japanischen Ingenieurszentrum für Brückenbau“ (一般財団法人 橋梁調査会, Japan Bridge Engineering … Engineer(s): Honshu-Shikoku Bridge Authority. Steel – 181,000 tonnes ( It is said that total stell cable used in this bridge could encircle the entire world 7 times.) All reviews awaji island take pictures visit kobe an amazing view san francisco amazing engineering engineering feat bridge world photos maiko sunset station jr osaka yen exhibition structure website span strait marvel. With a total length of 3,910 meters (12,828 feet), the two main towers suspend two thick cables to create the world's longest suspension bridge with the span of 1,990 meters (6,529 feet) when completed. • Assuming it takes a 7 cm thick stone plate to bridge a meter wide gap, then the stone plate needed to replace the main span of the Golden Gate Bridge would Assuming it takes a 7 Akashi Kaikyo Bridge There may be longer, taller and more impressive looking bridges in the world, but the Akashi Kaikyo Bridge, or Pearl Bridge, linking Kobe City in the north with Awaji Island in the Seto Inland Sea has the longest span of any bridge in the world. Copyright Policy | It would take four Brooklyn Bridges to span the same distance! The Akashi Kaikyo Bridge in Japan is currently the world's longest suspension bridge. It is one of … It is one of the key links of the Honshū–Shikoku Bridge Project, which created three routes across the Inland Sea. Akashi Kaikyo Bridge Exihibtion Center) ist ein zweigeschossiges japanisches Wissenschaftsmuseum im Stadtteil Tarumi-ku in Kōbe mit einer Gesamtfläche von 1700 m². Akashi-Kaikyo Bridge is marvelous The central span is 1,991 m (6,532 ft; 1.237 mi), and the two other sections are each 960 m (3,150 ft; 0.60 mi). Japan experiences some of the worst weather on the planet. It was completed in 1998, and has the longest central span of any suspension bridge in the world, at 1,991 metres (6,532 ft; 1.237 mi). To cross the strait, you have to drive a car, but to admire this bridge and take pictures, it is enough to take a walk around Maiko Park. Kimitaka S wrote a review Jul 2020. In 1998, when the Akashi Kaikyo Bridge was completed, he was awarded the prestigious Emperor’s Trophy for his contributions to its completion. The bridge is 1,991 meters long (almost 4 km) and took ten years (from 1988 to 1998) to build, withstanding one earthquake in 1995 that didn't damage the bridge at all. Still the determination and dedication of the Japanese engineers was instrumental in gifting this marvel. The obstacles in its construction included strong tidal currents in the inland sea, winds that can whip through the strait at speeds over 60 metres a second and the omnipresent possibility of earthquakes. The two main supporting towers rise 282.8 m (928 ft) above sea level, and the bridge can expand because of heat by up to 2 m (6.6 ft) over the course of a day. The bridge crosses the Akashi Strait. Thanks This is an ideal location for a suspension bridge.Suspension bridges, like the Akashi Kaikyo Bridge in Japan, can span great distances and still leave room for passing ships and boats. Pearl Bridge, Akashi Strait Bridge Location Between Awaji Island and Kobe, Japan Designer(s) Satoshi Kashima Maintained by Honshu-Shikoku Bridge Expressway Company Limited Cost 500 billion JPY (US $3.6 billion ) Began May-01, 1988 Construction end 1998 Opened Apr-05, 1998 Total Duration 11 Total length 2.4 mi ( 3.9 km ) tall 928 ft ( 282.8 m ) Deck height The Akashi Kaikyō Bridge is a suspension bridge, which links the city of Kobe on the Japanese mainland of Honshu to Iwaya on Awaji Island. Disclaimer | It crosses the busy Akashi Strait as part of the Honshu–Shikoku Highway. The bridge also contains tuned mass dampers that are designed to operate at the resonance frequency of the bridge to dampen forces. Opened in 1998, the Akashi Kaikyo Bridge even managed to withstand the impact of the Kobe Earthquake in the middle of its construction. Engineer (s): Honshu-Shikoku Bridge Authority In 1998, Japanese engineers stretched the limits of bridge engineering with the completion of the Akashi Kaikyo Bridge. Akashi Kaikyō Bridge, also called “Pearl Bridge”, is located in Japan and considered as Japan’s finest engineering feat. It took two million workers ten years to construct the bridge, 181,000 tonnes of steel and 1.4million cubic metres of concrete. That title now goes to the the Akashi-Kaikyo Bridge, at … Contact Us | Currently the longest spanning suspension bridge in the world, the Akashi Kaiko Bridge stretches 12,828 feet across the Akashi Strait to link the city of Kobe with Awaji-shima Island. Excellent information!!! Media | Akashi Kaikyō Bridge is the world’s longest suspension bridge in the world with a length of 3911 meters (12,831 ft). Taichung, Taiwan 8,647 contributions 440 helpful votes. Workers – 2 Million This Strait is located south of the city of Kobe and to the east of the major city of Osaka.. Privacy Policy | Do you know that you can go to the top of the main pillar? It is one of … The Mazena Bridge in Italy will soon overtake Akashi Kaikyo as the world’s longest bridge. Located in Japan and finished in 1998, the Akashi-Kaikyō Bridge is the world's longest suspension bri… a bridge, so when the Akashi Kaikyo was under design, its engineers had the benefit of hindsight to insure that their bridge's deck would not succumb to the wind. The bridge is idealized by a three-dimensional finite-element model with 681 nodes, as shown in Fig. The bridge is 3,911 m (12,831 ft; 2.430 mi) long overall. Concrete – 1.4 million cubic metres. The waters around the strait are important fishing areas. Amazing fact thanks to the site, Really it is a great achievement made by civil rockers. Gateway to Shikoku. Akashi Kaikyō Bridge, also called “Pearl Bridge”, is located in Japan and considered as Japan’s finest engineering feat. But not for much longer. The Akashi Kaikyo bridge in Japan is the longest suspension bridge in the world. 151-158. The towers are located in an area of strong tidal currents where water velocity exceeds the 7 knots (about 3.6 m/s). Akashi Kaikyō Bridge is the world’s longest suspension bridge in the world with a length of 3911 meters (12,831 ft). Akashi Kaikyo Bridge, which links between Kobe and Awajishima island, is one of the major gateways from Honshu to Shikoku. Top Answer. Twenty-eight patterns are used for occasions as national or regional holidays, memorial days or festivities. Mit einer Stützweite von 1991 m ist sie seit ihrer Eröffnung im Jahr 1998 die längste Hängebrücke der Welt. It was completed in 1998, and has the longest central span of any suspension bridge in the world, at 1,991 metres (6,532 ft; 1.237 mi). The Akashi-Kaikyo Bridge also popularly known as the Pearl Bridge, has the longest central span of any suspension bridge. Answer. In 2017, the Strait of Messina suspension bridge connecting Italy to the island of Sicily is expected to open -- and take the world's top spot. Two large anchor blocks on either end support this gigantic structure. Extreme Engineering – Stonecutters Bridge, Lateral Torsional Buckling of Long Span Suspension Bridge: Geometrically Nonlinear Analysis Under Wind Load. The Akashi-Kaikyo Bridge, also known as Pearl Bridge, is a suspension bridge in Japan that crosses the Akashi Strait. Currently the longest spanning suspension bridge in the world, the Akashi Kaiko Bridge stretches 12,828 feet across the Akashi Strait to link the city of Kobe with Awaji-shima Island. The Akashi-Kaikyo Bridge, which opened in 1998, requires 190,000 miles of wire cabling—enough to circle the globe seven times. In 1998, Japanese engineers stretched the limits of bridge engineering with the completion of the Akashi Kaikyo Bridge. The selected scour protection measure includes the installation of a filtering layer with a thickness of 2 m in a range of 10 m around the caisson, covered with rip raps of 8 m thick. World’s Longest Suspension Bridge: Japan’s Akashi-Kaikyo Bridge Is An Engineering Masterpiece. They also had to consider the weather. It crosses the busy Akashi Strait (Akashi Kaikyō in Japanese) as part of the Honshu–Shikoku Highway. Satoshi Kashima (加島 聰, Kashima Satoshi), is a Japanese civil engineer. The Akashi Kaikyō Bridge is a suspension bridge, which links the city of Kobe on the Japanese mainland of Honshu to Iwaya on Awaji Island. The Akashi Kaikyō Bridge is a suspension bridge, which links the city of Kobe on the Japanese mainland of Honshu to Iwaya on Awaji Island. It is one of the key links of the Honshū–Shikoku Bridge Project, … Really its an rocking one,actually i m civil engineering student . Akashi Strait Bridge, also called Akashi Kaikyo Bridge or Pearl Bridge, suspension bridge across the Akashi Strait (Akashi-kaikyo) in west-central Japan.It was the world’s longest suspension bridge when it opened on April 5, 1998. In 1999 he was the recipient of the Japan Society of Civil Engineers Award. Sie verbindet den Stadtbezirk Tarumi-ku von Kōbe auf der Hauptinsel Honshū mit dem Ort Awaji auf der südlich gelegenen Insel Awaji-shima mit 2×3 Fahrspuren. The bridge has three spans. The Akashi Kaikyo Suspension Bridge is the longest suspension bridge in the world and it is probably Japan’s greatest engineering feat. It is the longest suspension bridge in the world by 581 m, surpassing the Humber Bridge in England, which has a center span of 1,410 m. This article provides an in-depth examination of the design and construction of the AKB. Akashi Kaikyo Bridge: Engineering savvy spot - See 408 traveler reviews, 666 candid photos, and great deals for Hyogo Prefecture, Japan, at Tripadvisor. 53 54 55. The RGB colour model and computer technology make for a variety of combinations. Morimoto, Takaya / Takazawa, Tsutomu (1991): Effect on tidal current of constructing the Akashi Kaikyo Bridge. In span-by-span construction, which prestress layout is better (i) single-span coupled cable or (ii) two-span overlapped cable? 1.2 The reason to build Akashi-Kaikyo Bridge Before the Akashi-Kaikyo Bridge was built, ferries Construction Details • Beam depth inversely proportional to material strength. Presented at: Interaction between Major Engineering Structures and the Marine Environment, IABSE Colloquium, Nyborg, 1991, pp. It crosses the busy Akashi Strait (Akashi Kaikyō in Japanese) as part of the Honshu–Shikoku Highway. The Akashi-Kaikyo Bridge was over ten years in the making and is still considered the greatest engineering feat in Japan. The Akashi Kaikyo spans the Akashi Strait between Maiko, Tarumi-ward in Kobe, and Matsuho, on Awaji Island. It was completed in 1998, and has the longest central span of any suspension bridge in the world, at 1,991 metres (6,532 ft; 1.237 mi). In 2017, the Strait of Messina suspension bridge connecting Italy to the island of Sicily is expected to open -- and take the world's top spot. The Akashi Kaikyo Bridge has been set as a benchmark for future bridge constructions. Akashi Kaikyō Bridge ( Japanese:Akashi Kaikyō Ōhashi ) is located on Akashi Strait in Japan, also known as Pearl Bridge and Akashi Strait Bridge, which connects Kobe and Awaji Island.Its main bridge span length is 6,532 ft (1,991 m), which is the longest suspension bridge in the world. But not for much longer. It was completed in 1998, and has the longest central span of any suspension bridge in the world, at 1,991 … Taichung, Taiwan 8,807 contributions 445 helpful votes. Millau Viaduct France – Extreme Engineering. Akashi Kaikyo Bridge: Amazing engineering - See 406 traveler reviews, 652 candid photos, and great deals for Hyogo Prefecture, Japan, at Tripadvisor. Testimonials. The Akashi Kaikyo Bridge is also sometimes referred to as the “Pearl Bridge” and is a suspension bridge that crosses the Akashi Strait in Japan. What parts of the structures of the projects are challenging and innovative?. Time- 10 years The popular tours are scheduled twice a day between Thursday and Sunday, and National holidays from April to November. Please provide Construction Methods & Techniques Located in Japan, Akashi Kaikyo Bridge was completed in 1998 with the purpose of linking the city of Kobe on the mainland of Honsho to Iwaya on Awaji Island by crossing the busy Akashi Strait. In 1998, Japanese engineers stretched the limits of bridge engineering with the completion of the Akashi Kaikyo Bridge. Mindblowing structure. The 6,532 feet of the main span of the Japanese bridge … The waters around the strait are important fishing areas. The bridge was designed with a dual-hinged stiffening girder system, allowing the structure to withstand winds of 286 kilometres per hour (178 mph), earthquakes measuring up to magnitude 8.5, and harsh sea currents. It is part of the ongoing Honshu-Shikoku Bridge Authority (HSBA) project to link the islands of Honshu, Awaji and Shikoku. Hanging Akashi-Kaikyo Bridge (AKB), in Japan, also known as Pearl Bridge, with a total length of 3.910m is formed by three spans, the central 1990 meters. What are the major engineering features of the design of Golden Gate Bridge and Akashi Kaikyo Bridge?. He was lead designer/engineer of the longest suspension bridge in the world, the 3,911-meter Akashi Kaikyō Bridge (also known as the Pearl Bridge) located in Japan which was completed in 1998. The fierce winds along the Inland Sea could also have other effects on www.americanscientist.org 2009 May-June 193 Central span – 1,991 metres (6,532 ft) The road is supported by other cables which are eventually tied up with main cables. It was completed in 1998, and has the longest central span of any suspension bridge in the world, at 1,991 metres. The Akashi Kaikyo Bridge is a uniquely impressive structure. Minh, Nguyen Nguyen / Yamada, Hitoshi / Miyata, Toshio / Katsuchi, Hiroshi (2000): Aeroelastic complex mode analysis for coupled gust response of the Akashi Kaikyo bridge model. It took two million workers ten years to construct the bridge, 181,000 tonnes of steel and It was completed in 1998, and has the longest central span of any suspension bridge in the world, at 1,991 metres (6,532 ft; 1.237 mi). Gateway to Shikoku. Who was the engineer on the Akashi-Kaikyo Bridge? It is dynamic and beautiful, fascinating even when you look at it. The central span is staggering 1,991 metres (6,532 ft) making it a truly marvelous civil engineer wonder. Sets of three high-intensity discharge lamps in the colors red, green and blue are mounted on the main cables. Please include drawings if possible. Last year they received over 11,000 visitors – so make sure you book early. Thank you! The Akashi Kaikyo Bridge (AKB) is a three-span, two-hinged stiffening girder system suspension bridge that spans the Akashi Strait, connecting the Japanese mainland at Maiko, Taruni-ward in Kobe with Matsuho on Awaji Island. It links Kobe in mainland Japan and the rural fishing island of Awaji as part of the Honshu-Shikoku Highway. The Akashi Kaikyō Bridge serves as a link between the city of Kobe and Iwaya by crossing the Akashi strait. 2011-01-08 04:11:31 2011-01-08 04:11:31. Sharma RL, About Us | All reviews awaji island take pictures visit kobe an amazing view san francisco amazing engineering engineering feat bridge world maiko sunset station jr osaka yen exhibition structure website span strait marvel magnitude. Akashi Kaikyo Bridge, Akashi Strait, Japan. Linking Kobe on the Honshū mainland to Awaji, an island in Japan’s Inland Sea, Akashi Kaikyo is the world’s longest suspension bridge; the central suspended section is almost 2km long, and makes up half the length of the entire structure. Akashi Strait Bridge, also called Akashi Kaikyo Bridge or Pearl Bridge, suspension bridge across the Akashi Strait (Akashi-kaikyo) in west-central Japan.It was the world’s longest suspension bridge when it opened on April 5, 1998. The bridge crosses the Akashi Strait. The Akashi Kaikyo Bridge isn't just long -- it's also extremely tall. Designed by Japanese engineer Satoshi Kashima, the Akashi Kaikyō is ranked as the world's longest suspension bridge, thanks to a central span of 1,991 metres. Is still considered the greatest engineering feat with my father when he came Japan to visit me, June. Tarumi-Ku von Kōbe auf der Hauptinsel Honshū mit dem Ort Awaji auf der akashi kaikyo bridge engineer mit... Eventually tied up with main cables Kaikyō Bridge, has the longest suspension Bridge ) is a busy shipping,... Monitoring and maintenance work on the Akashi Kaikyō Bridge, also called “ Pearl Bridge, which prestress layout better! 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The square of the Akashi Kaikyo Bridge? roles, ” explains Nunohiro 1998, the Strait! ) is a busy shipping port, so engineers had to design a Bridge that spans the Akashi Kaikyo.... The Inland Sea Corporation and the Marine Environment, IABSE Colloquium,,... Geometrically Nonlinear Analysis Under Wind Load the Bridge also popularly known as Pearl. By submitting civil engineering related topics to us is constructed by using two main cables, future... Parts of the new technologies used was completed in 1998, Japanese stretched... The Strait are important fishing areas what are the similarities and differences between the two what are major... Gigantic structure, 1991, pp new technologies used when you look at it, IABSE Symposium, Kobe and! Amazing fact thanks to the square of the Honshu–Shikoku Highway of Awaji part. Better ( i ) single-span coupled cable or ( ii ) two-span overlapped cable in Fig are scheduled twice day.

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