caribbean society 1900 to 1985

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Get this from a library! 9. during this period? Throughout the Caribbean area magic has some importance, perhaps particularly among lower-class persons and connected especially with agriculture, fishing, and life crises. Mainly confined to upland interiors by continued plantation activity on fertile coastal plains, yeomen engaged in mixed farming to produce subsistence, local exchange items, and exports. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1997. Since then, another 13 former British colonies in the anglophone Caribbean, culminating with St Kitts and Nevis in 1983, have joined the ranks of independent states. French Saint-Domingue’s liberal slave code led to the growth of an influential slaveholding free colored class. Careful interpretation of the importance of different slave codes and other historical influences has not yet been undertaken. Caracas: Editorial Sucre. The only domesticated animals were the guinea pig, which was eaten, and the dog, used for hunting. Main currents in Caribbean thought : the historical evolution of Caribbean society in its ideological aspects, 1492-1900. When? Economic Possibilities for Our Time Course. Caribbean as elsewhere, is part and parcel of the broader work on social and cultural history (Brereton 2006, 187-209). Diffuseness of kin ties and looseness of community organization argue for a characterization of rural lower-class island folk as highly individualistic in their life styles. Who? Anguilla, a dependent territory of the United Kingdom, is one of the Leeward Islands. Mona (Jamaica): University College of the West Indies. Such smuggling, mixed with military action unofficially but strongly supported by north European heads of state, created the official piracy called privateering: privateers recruited crews and were outfitted in north European ports; rulers invested in ships and supplies and shared in the spoils. Subjugated Indians were used for mining, agriculture, and domestic labor, and Indian women were taken as concubines and occasionally as wives by the Spaniards. Canadian Geographer 5, no. The single most important cause of death in adults was tuberculosis which is caused by and overcrowding housing. Only after 1800—by which time the Caribbean economic contribution to the growth of European capitalism had been immense—did this intense European interest wane. Then, rephrase the question so that it’s clear to you. Where can I find a list of famous Caribbean women? Rouse, Irving 1964 Prehistory of the West Indies. Where behavioral differences in forms of mating and domestic organization, religious persuasion and practice, language or dialect, and values express the presence of different institutional subsystems within a single Caribbean society, some analysts have labeled the society “plural” (M. G. Smith 1955), suggesting societal similarities with such Old World societies as Malaya, Fiji, or Mauritius. Subsistence agriculture, craft production, and marketing by slaves (where permitted by the masters to reduce operating costs, as in Jamaica) enabled slaves to accumulate some capital and buying power and, rarely, to buy their own freedom. Indian rebellions began in 1504 on Hispaniola and recurred there and elsewhere for half a century, but Spanish arms and superior organization invariably prevailed. The Hispanic insular highlands were internal frontiers, settled by squatter subsistence cultivators living in substantial isolation; merging African, Amerind, and European traditions gradually solidified into Hispano-Caribbean folk cultures. Comparative Studies in Society and History 6:24−46. The first known exploit, in 1527, exposed colonial needs for goods and slaves, which were inadequately filled by Spain because of restrictive mercantile policies. In Dominica (Arawakan) Island-Carib is no longer spoken by the few surviving Island-Carib; only traces remain of the distinction between men’s and women’s speech. Social and Economic Studies 9:101−106. Though land hunger has played a certain part in political struggles (as in Jamaica’s Morant Bay “rebellion” of 1865), and though slavery underlay much basically political disturbance (as in the Haitian revolution, the maroon “wars” of Jamaica, and many lesser conflicts), most political activity has originated in the colonial relationship itself. By the end of the sixteenth century large areas of what would become Latin America was colonized by European settlers, primarily from Spain, THE END The long-term effects of such sabotage were to hasten the decline of the entire system, even though slave resistance intensified cruelty and led to the claim by proslavery elements that slaves were congeni-tally unfit for freedom. In Cuba culturally identifiable Indian communities are believed to have endured until the end of the eighteenth century (Rouse 1948), though much later introductions of Yucatecan Maya laborers may have had an effect on this interpretation. American Anthropologist New Series 67:66−79. European and North American political and economic interest in the Caribbean continues under significantly changed circumstances. By then the lucrativeness of plantations and the slave trade had stimulated other competitors: the Dutch and the Danes sought island colonies; the Swedes obtained a temporary foothold in tiny Saint-Barthelemy; the Knights of Malta briefly claimed parts of the Virgin Islands; even the Duchy of Courland made an abortive attempt to hold Tobago. change from the pre-1900, that you understand what the question is asking. 1400 – 1599 MADE IN CHINA For most of the nineteenth century, Western navigators referred to this archipelago as the "Lagoon Islands," a name gr…, Culture Name According to some observers, mating systems can be reduced to three predominant forms: sacramental or civil marriage, coresidential consensual unions, and stable but not coresidential consensual unions. To a significant extent their populations were imported to fulfill decisions made elsewhere, especially in order to maintain or change the relationship of labor supply to land (Lowenthal 1961). But the destructiveness of such practices is attributable in part to the need to work hillsides because of plantation control of the lowlands, as well as to land pressure caused by increasing population and traditions of equal inheritance. Washington: Government Printing Office. Caribbean Political Development up to 1985 . Jayawardena, Chandra 1962 Family Organisation in Plantations in British Guiana. The social order was democratic, absolute authority being exercised only on war parties. And since World War II, Pentecostal, Church of God, and other revivalist groups have gained many converts in Puerto Rico and Cuba. Though seventeenth-century and eighteenth-century Spanish slavery was mild, it has been said that the system began and ended (Puerto Rico in 1873, Cuba in 1882) as the worst in the world. This final resurgence of slave-based Caribbean plantations depended on slave smuggling as late as the 1860s; in Puerto Rico, in addition, “vagrancy laws” drove landless white freemen into forced plantation labor. [See alsoLand tenure; Peasantry; Plantations; Slavery.]. Creole languages may have originated in a Portuguese-based pidgin (Taylor 1961); today most of them appear to consist of the combination of IndoEuropean lexicons and non-Indo-European (possibly African) syntactic forms. Only fragmentary portions of African cultural traditions could be perpetuated. Variants of swidden agriculture predominated; hilly slopes were planted, and substantial erosion and deforestation have typified Caribbean yeoman land use. Every country had at least one airport and one port at the time. The islands lie within the zone of coastal subtropical New World lowlands and share important general historical and sociological features: (a) aboriginal populations were either sparse or were destroyed or assimilated soon after 1492; (b) plantation agriculture developed early as an emergent phase of European overseas capitalism; (c) slavery and contract labor were the main means for productively relating the work force to the land; (d) under the plantation system and until about 1835, Africa was the principal source of labor; (e) local cultures often exhibit a substantial (but unevenly distributed and by no means exclusive) African component; and (f) political dependence and European control have persisted with fewer interruptions than elsewhere in the his-tory of the New World. There was a lack of running water and improper sewage facilities in most of the areas. American Anthropologist New Series 52:343−349. List of Tables Executive Summary 1. Spanish feudal preconceptions may have influenced these descriptions of a rigidly stratified social system. Though the extreme harshness of British slavery has been attributed to the lack of a slavery tradition and of a missionizing religion, at least as important were the early and rapid development of plantations as the mainstay of British Caribbean life and the great local political power of the planters. What is it really asking? Learn. What was up with the, WARLIKE OUTLINES OF THE SECURITARIAN STATE. Describe the various aspect of social life. The Spanish Conquest transformed Caribbean aboriginal life. HECHO EN MEXICO These circumstances led to the growth in most colonies of intermediate “mulatto” groupings, sometimes having substantial economic and political power. Even in the towns labourers could not afford their fees. Identification. Especially enigmatic are the nonhorticultural pioneer settlers of Hispaniola and Cuba; the subject of only scanty and uncertain Spanish commentary, they swiftly disappeared. Conditions in the British Caribbean between 1900 and 1935 - Duration: 2:38. Slaves engaged in malingering, practiced self-induced abortion and self-mutilation, feigned stupidity, and misused equipment and stock, thus raising production costs and lowering profits. Spain, however, now struggling to satisfy the economic ambitions of her remaining New World colonies, strongly supported the growth of type 4 plantations in Cuba and Puerto Rico. Orientation The proportion dropped below that in 1910 and 1920, in association with the large-scale immigration from Southern and Eastern Europe; it then climbed to over 70 percent in Many aboriginal cultural features (foods, crops, medicinal plants, agricultural techniques, plant and place names, and architectural and craft practices) were transferred to Europe or interwoven with European elements in the islands. MADE IN DOMINICAN REPUBLIC MADE IN SWAZILAND In economic terms the main contemporary community types are plantation settlements, freehold villages, haciendas (large estates, mainly in coffee, often with landless share-tenants and neighboring small-scale yeoman holdings, as in Puerto Rico), fishing villages, and more rarely, cattle-producing and dairy-producing settlements. 2.2 Measuring poverty alleviation 2.3 Developing backward linkages 2.4 Is small beautiful, Illustrations List of Tables A Note to the Reader x Preface xi Acknowledgments Introduction Translated and edited by Sterling A. Stoudemire. Madrid: Helénica. Hence the early decades of the seventeenth century marked the irreversible penetration of north European political and military power into the Caribbean (Newton 1933). Introduction & context 1.1 Tourism and development: a global picture 1.2 The importance of tourism in the South Pacific 1.3 Recent tourism activity 1.4 The economic impacts of tourism 1.5 The scale and composition of South Pacific tourism 2. 2:38. In each instance, then, the plantation system differed somewhat from others, both in its operation and in the sort of society it helped to create. Social conditions. Mintz, Sidney W. 1953a The Culture History of a Puerto-Rican Sugar Cane Plantation: 1876−1949. MADE IN THAILAND Press. More recently, substantial .numbers of Puerto Ricans have migrated to the U.S. Virgin Islands, as have small numbers of white fishermen from the French islands. As refuge areas for military deserters, the shipwrecked, and escaped slaves, the Hispanic island interiors facilitated such syntheses. The Caribbean’s small island economies face formidable challenges in dealing with globalisation, particularly in relation to the vital agricultural sector. When I speak of the Caribbean in this article, I mean the English-speaking Caribbean or the ... difficult to prove the importance of the game to members of the West Indian society. East Indian migrants in Trinidad, British Guiana, and elsewhere often maintain simplified versions of their original Muslim or Hindu faith. Post-Columbian Spanish commentators (Las Casas 1552; 1561; Oviedo 1526; 1535−1557) reported cultural distinctions among the natives corresponding roughly with the archeological record, but almost all that is known of aboriginal social life is based on inference. Europeans and sub-Saharan Africa Some of which were typhoid, yellow fever, malaria, dysentery, tetanus, hookworm, yaws, tuberculosis and cholera. They lived by killing semiferal cattle and selling tallow, hides, and barbecued meat to passing ships. Oil and oil refining have brought relative prosperity to Trinidad and the Dutch offshore islands; Puerto Rico’s Operation Bootstrap, lubricated by private and official capital and aided by unimpeded immigration to the United States, has facilitated limited industrialization and brought about a sharp rise in living standards; bauxite mining in Jamaica has improved that country’s economic position; and the growth of the tourist industry has benefited most of the Caribbean except (for political reasons) Cuba, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic. Encyclopedia.com. Mintz, Sidney W. 1953b The Folk-Urban Continuum and the Rural Proletarian Community. Outline efforts made to improve social conditions by different agents. Baptist and Methodist proselytization proved very successful, but after 1838 many persons lost their formal church affiliation; cults combining Christian elements with some features of African belief multiplied. Thus the plantation system did not completely preclude either cultural continuity with the past or the growth of intermediate social segments within island societies, though the development of distinct subcultures had to take place in the interstices of tightly controlled social orders. The French Antilles became départements of the Republic in 1946, securing direct representation in the French assembly as integral portions of metropolitan France. I've come up with a few off the top of my head (Rita Marley, Penny Commissiong, supermodel Nadine) but I'm now at a loss! Their reputation for bloodthirstiness may have been exaggerated to serve European political ends, however, and to justify enslavement. An Integrated Project Financed by the Sixth EU Framework Programme The elimination of the flourishing yeoman settlements that had preceded plantation growth in the Lesser Antilles signified the spread and expansion of populations of African provenience at the cost of those of European background. A Spanish administrative policy advocating humane treatment proved more effective on the mainland; the brilliant appeals of the friars Montesinos and Las Casas (Hanke 1949) on behalf of the Indians created a theological and legal controversy in Spain that thereafter deeply affected European philosophy. MADE IN SYRIA These three groupings probably entered the islands from mainland South America in the order given above. This lasted until 1900. It early became clear that freemen in new colonies preferred agricultural self-employment to plantation labor; without legislative devices to bind them to the soil, plantation labor needs could not be filled. Contents 4 . Distinctions between domestic composition and the familial group are essential in analyzing West Indian social structure, since residence patterns vary widely and often do not coincide with lines of kinship (Solien I960; Greenfield 1961). GENDER, THE GLOBAL GARMENT INDUSTRY AND THE MOVEMENT FOR WOMEN WORKERS’ RIGHTS Better known were the Island-Arawak of the Greater Antilles, especially the Taino of Hispaniola. Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin No. Topics included are the Transatlantic Slave Trade, colonialism, political conflicts, and struggles for freedom. POPULATION : 307,451 After 1650 plantations spread through the Lesser Antilles, and except in those islands unfit for the system, yeoman cultivation nearly vanished. By 1492 the Island-Carib, latecomers to the Lesser Antilles, had occupied all the small islands from Tobago to Vieques except Trinidad and Barbados. Overpopulation or overcrowding occurred in various villages or communities because of the lack of housing and also of the lack of education; people kept having children and with this being a key factor to overpopulation. In order to keep labor cheap and readily available, massive contract labor importations were begun. Each group, owners and owned, could bring only incomplete and imperfect renderings of its ancestral culture to the islands. Now, it is the exportation of labor that is on the rise in the Caribbean. Before 1995, this pear-shaped island had a population of about ten thousand and was…, Culture Name The existence of socialist Cuba and its links to the communist powers of Europe and Asia; the debate over Puerto Rico’s eventual status; the declining influence of the United States; the role of the new island nations, the greatly increased European interest in the economic possibilities of Caribbean trade; and the growing ideological ties among underdeveloped countries everywhere are all part of the new situation. Such assemblages are rarely more than three generations deep, and collateral reckoning of kinsmen does not normally go beyond first cousins; normative taboos on sexual activity and unions usually hold within these groupings. This however, Bad sanitation, filthy water, poor housing, unclean environment and overcrowded homes were the main reasons for diseases in the 20th century. Many buccaneers were Frenchmen (often religious and political dissenters) who occupied northwestern Hispaniola about 1620, and later, when harassed by the Spaniards, moved off the north coast to lie de la Tortue. Slave trade The possible entry of the new nations into the Organization of American States, the growth of important centers of higher education in the islands, and the emerging understanding of collective political influence lead toward pan-Caribbeanism. Like vodun, these faiths lack any national institutional structure and vary locally; they compete for new adherents, partly by ceremonial innovation, but never entirely lose their Christian elements. Williams, Eric (1944) 1961 Capitalism and Slavery. Hookworm bred where there was poor sanitation but was caught mostly by children and adults who had no shoes. Caribbean politics has also been marked by color consciousness, stimulated by persisting differences in wealth and power along radial lines and by sharp ethnic and racial differences—for example, as in British Guiana (Despres 1964). Otterbein, Keith F. 1963 The Household Composition of the Andros Islanders. LIFE CONTROL AND THE EXCLUSION OF PEOPLE As the first non-Spaniards to settle in the Greater Antilles, the buccaneers eventually threatened Spain more than did pirates and privateers. Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. The main groupings are the four Greater Antilles, the Lesser Antilles (about forty inhabited islands), and Trinidad and Tobago. International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. Cuba soon received formal independence, while Puerto Rico has remained a United States dependency, long governed through the U.S. Department of the Interior. Match. Society and welfare after slavery More images below. Slave trade to the other islands was soon made illegal (Denmark, 1802; England, 1808; Sweden, 1813; Holland, 1814; France, 1814; Spain, 1820), though illicit trade remained very important until well into the nineteenth century. Between 1492 and about 1622 when serious English and French colonization began in the Lesser Antilles, the Island-Carib were attacked by the Spaniards and seized as slaves, but the islands were uncolonized; the Island-Arawak of the Greater Antilles, however, received the full brunt of Spanish power. Though female slaves were often sexually defenseless against their masters (probably a basic conditioning aspect of the forms of slave domestic organization and marital patterns), the masters’ illegitimate offspring were sometimes provided educational and economic opportunities. A lexically French creole is spoken in Haiti, the French Antilles, and several former French islands (e.g., Dominica, St. Lucia); the Dutch Leeward Islands use Papiamento, a creole having Spanish, Portuguese, and English elements but syntactically similar to none of them. The United States also occupied Haiti and the Dominican Republic, both of which had been much isolated in the nineteenth century, maintained basic politico–military control in Cuba, and defined the noncolonial Caribbean as essential to its national interest (Munro 1964). Despres, Leo A. Simpson, George E. 1962b The Peoples and Cultures of the Caribbean Area. All Caribbean societies are economically stratified (Simpson 1962a) and racially heterogeneous, and many contain diverse and identifiable ethnic groups. PART 2 COGNITIVE CLASSES AND SOCIAL BEHIOR London: Routledge. Cars, lorries, trucks and buses were present at the time. Between 1630 and 1648 they also laid claim to Saba and St. Eustatius, the latter island becoming a major center of non-Spanish trade. Successful escapes in Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola, and elsewhere led to the establishment of refuge communities and special opportunities for perpetuating parts of the African heritage. 1966 The Plural Society Debate: Some Comments on a Recent Contribution. The subordinate mass, unable either to maintain their cultural heritages and societal forms or to acquire the masters’ models, eventually contrived very flexible solutions to their personal problems, perforce adapted to a repressive social environment. Fish were caught by hook and line, shellfish were collected, and the sea cow (Tricechus manatus) harpooned. International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. Slave trade From its very inception in Hispaniola less than two decades after the discovery, until the present, the plantation system has been counterposed against small-scale cultivation by freeholders. GABRIELA RODRÍGUEZ FERNÁNDEZ American Journal of Sociology 59:136−143. The de­vel­op­ment of the peas­antry, 1838 to 1900 – Part II Jamaica Gleaner - 2017-04-11 - YOUTH LINK - DEBBION HY­MAN Con­trib­u­tor. Oviedo y ValdÉs, Gonzalo FernÁndez de(1535−1557) 1959 Historia general y natural de las Indias. Test. ewimm. What is it really asking? North European settlement in the smaller islands was accomplished mainly by indentured servants employed by chartered companies producing tobacco, indigo, ginger, and other commodities for growing European markets. Buccaneering into an arm of official policy, securing direct representation in the Caribbean between and! Thought: the historical evolution of Caribbean History the major basis of colonial economic and social Structure in Hispanic. 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