hebrew interpretation of genesis

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“And God SAID, “Let there be light,” and there was light.” (Genesis 1:3) “And God SAID, “Let there be an expanse in the midst of the waters, and let it separate the waters from the waters.” (Genesis 1:6) “And God SAID, “Let the waters under the heavens be gathered together into one place, and let … 0000001870 00000 n Instead, it has a solid foundation in the Hebrew language itself. 0000001959 00000 n Genesis 1:31 And God saw every thing that he had made, and, behold, it was very … Exodus 20:11 For in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all … Exodus 23:12 Six days you shall do your work, and on the seventh day you shall … Exodus 31:17 It … But this is not an proper exegesis of the Hebrew text. Try downloading another browser like Chrome or Firefox. The reasoning then is that the earth being dark, formless, and void in Genesis 1:2 is the result of some catastrophic judgment. We would then expect the next verb to be at the beginning of the next sentence, and to be the vav-consecutive form. Hebrew verbs do have tense, but it is simply indicated by the context rather than by the form of the word. Genesis was written well before the time of Jeremiah, and Jeremiah is borrowing the imagery from Genesis to express the severity of the judgment that is about to befall the nation of Judah. ��p@s �&�q �Ҍ$)�%M&P���K�g�),[�%��P���[4{�W���(�$z�y�Wq6�~=���WO���_�ֆq�q��*��4zU 7��Z�������H`D�����W�D}�1��O3?u_��t��? However, neither of those two things is true of the verb “was” in Genesis 1:2. 21 Their first clothing. Instead, the relation of one verb to preceding and following verbs is regularly indicated by two things. grade Double your impact! It could be circumstantial to v 1 or v 3, but for reasons already discussed the latter is more probable.”8. Genesis 1–3 found in various early Jewish writings including rabbinical, philosophical and mystical/apocalyptic works. But in fact, He is simply being formal. In general, Jewish writers distinguished various levels of meaning, including an allegorical as well as a literal or historical level. It is the same in the Old Testament with Hebrew. The people have persisted in their idolatry and their rebellion against God, and He is about to bring judgment on the land. That is the use of a figure of speech called a “hendiadys.” The word comes from Greek and literally means one-through-two. The plural pronoun "us" and "our" are simply required from the Hebrew noun elohim which is plural. Please follow the instructions we emailed you in order to finish subscribing. A number of years ago, I heard a noted New Testament scholar relate a story about teaching a Sunday school class. It is clear from the discussion in the dictionary that yom in reference to the days of creation discussed in Genesis 1–2 refers to ordinary days. %PDF-1.5 %���� View three and four are distinguished only by interpretation, not by translation. We know that “see” is present tense, while “saw” is past tense. Understanding this is largely a matter of vocabulary, knowing the various nuances that the noun “woman” may have in a particular context. As an example for the differences in grammar, the English verb system is time-based. . So, for example, in Genesis 28:11 the English says, “So he came to a certain place.” In Hebrew, it says, “and he came to the place.” In English, the use of “the” in such a context implies that the place had already been introduced, whereas that is not the case in Hebrew. It later gained great popularity, particularly in fundamentalist circles, through its inclusion in the Scofield Reference Bible. For concordists, the temptation is to interpret every Bible verse to … There are, and frequently those differences pose difficulties for the translator. That is, “When God created . Your gift helps support the core AiG ministry, fund a new exhibit coming to the Creation Museum, launch Answers Bible Curriculum homeschool, and more. 16 The punishment of mankind. 0000002231 00000 n Speiser describes the phrase as ‘an excellent example of hendiadys’; it means the desert waste and is used as the opposite of creation.”5. 0000002054 00000 n You're almost done! repented. It is at this point, for example, that I would take issue with the NKJV. Hebrews 1:10 And, You, Lord, in the beginning have laid the foundation of the …. 0000006989 00000 n 0000005837 00000 n In English, we do not often think of how one verb may be related to preceding or following verbs. The first is that verse 1 is a temporal clause that is subordinate to verse 2, which is the main clause. The actual creation then begins with verse 2. That is, the action of the second verb follows the action of the first verb in sequence; the third follows the second, and so forth. However, that view is inconsistent with the theology taught in the remainder of the Scriptures — that God is the sole source of all that is, and that nothing existed but God before creation (e.g., Exodus 20:11; Nehemiah 9:6; Colossians 1:16). In part, this contributed to the development of the day-age view of Genesis 1 (as well as other long-age views). But in many places that is not the case. The definition of the verb itself does not answer the question. . According to Strong’s Concordance, the KJV translates it into about 12 different words or phrases. In verse two, the phrase “without form and void” does not indicate two separate things, but one thing. . Third is the particular phrase “the day of the Lord.” Fourth is the use of the plural “days” to refer to the life of someone (Genesis 6:3; Deuteronomy 22:19). 6 Man's shameful fall, 9 God arraigneth them. 0000039485 00000 n In order for the gap theory to work at this point, the reader would simply have to ignore this standard element of Hebrew syntax. Not only does the repeated use of the vav-consecutive indicate that a passage is narrative, but it also indicates sequence. Your newsletter signup did not work out. It is the same in t… (the earth being formless and void) . Today, there are many study helps and lexicons that can aid a layman and professional scholar. If that word order is changed, it is a clue to the reader that something other than straightforward narrative is taking place, or that some explanatory comment is being inserted into the narrative. Buy Analysis and Critical Interpretation of the Hebrew Text of the Book of Genesis by Paul, William 1804-1884 online on Amazon.ae at best prices. A number of years ago, I heard a noted New Testament scholar relate a story about teaching a Sunday school class. The verb “created” in Genesis 1:1 is in the perfect state (not to be confused with the perfect in English), as is ordinarily the case with the beginning of a narrative. 0000011340 00000 n trailer <<14ec159a88a011d88f45000a956a717a>]>> startxref 0 %%EOF 103 0 obj<>stream .” The narrative begins with a general statement about the heavens and the earth. Exodus 20:11 For in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all …. That is, the verb form can vary depending on whether the action is viewed as a whole, or viewed as incomplete or repeated. A second consideration having to do with syntax deals with the transition from Genesis 1:1 to Genesis 1:2. The first is day as opposed to night as in Genesis 1:5, where the light period is called “day,” and the dark period is called “night.” The second is day as a division of time, so for example, “three days journey” as in Genesis 30:36 or Exodus 3:18. All of them are grammatically and syntactically possible, though each of the three after the NKJV requires some playing around with the text. First, the verb is not in first place in verse two. The issue here is the syntax. It is usually translated “peace” in English versions, but again, the range of meaning of the Hebrew word is much wider. Spread the love. While Wickes did not state that the Paseq Euphemisticum ever occurred in the non-Poetic books of the Hebrew Bible, the reading of Genesis Chapter 1 (in light of the notes provided by the Masoretic editors) suggests the separation of the divine name from what follows (unfavorable information and contrasts), and thus appears parallel to the Paseq Euphemisticum found in the Poetic Books. That is, God and matter are both eternal. Then, in more recent time, the earth became formless and void. God said.” The third view is that verse 1 is a separate main clause, serving as a title to the remainder of the section. It is the use of two related terms to identify one idea. א וַיְבָרֶךְ אֱלֹהִים, אֶת-נֹחַ וְאֶת-בָּנָיו; וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם פְּרוּ וּרְבוּ, וּמִלְאוּ אֶת-הָאָרֶץ. Wenham translates it as “total chaos” and makes the following comment: “ ‘Total chaos’ is an example of hendiadys.”4 Similarly, Westermann says, “E.A. Here the primary syntactical observation is the use of what is called the vav-consecutive in Hebrew (sometimes denoted as a “waw-consecutive”). 1 John 1:1 That which was from the beginning, which we have heard, which we …. This explains the English rendering “a certain place” in Genesis 28:11. The aim of this analysis is to consider aspects of the context in which the book of Genesis was written, such as its authorship, recipients, time period of historical events and composition, and its biblical context, which may be useful in understanding the book as a whole. The point is that the range of meaning for hesed is wider than that of any of the English words used to translate it. 0000004655 00000 n I suppose in some sense that the real problems here are not so much due to a lack of knowledge of Hebrew, though that may often be the case with laymen, nor with scientists who are knowledgeable in their own field but ignorant in the biblical languages. According to the Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew lexicon (dictionary), yom has six basic uses in the Old Testament. Here is a pastor sating that the traditional interpretation of YOM (or YOWM), as meaning a literal 24-hour day, is not supported by linguistic scholarship. Genesis Chapter 6 בְּרֵאשִׁית א וַיְהִי כִּי-הֵחֵל הָאָדָם, לָרֹב עַל-פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה; וּבָנוֹת, יֻלְּדוּ לָהֶם. That is, English has past, present, and future tenses (and variations on each of those), and the primary consideration is when the action took place. The coming into being of something; the origin. Get out your Bibles and be prepared for a shock. An essential element of this theory is the idea that there is a gap between Genesis 1:1 and Genesis 1:2. In Hebrew, the normal word order, at least in narrative, is verb-subject-object. Numbers 23:19 God is not a man, that he should lie; neither the son of man, that …. Eve is tempted by the serpent and violates God’s explicit orders, eating the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil and encouraging Adam to do likewise. The single form in Hebrew is: "Eloah." ("��2BP>3�/1���I �edeP��� f��d3�Ld��$�* -2�P~�*�����800q���`P|����dФ��a���?w�EdsV�O�]"���:5Ma���%�hw~pRd�� �٥ endstream endobj 102 0 obj<> endobj 104 0 obj<>/Font<>>>/DA(/Helv 0 Tf 0 g )>> endobj 105 0 obj<> endobj 106 0 obj<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>> endobj 107 0 obj<> endobj 108 0 obj<> endobj 109 0 obj<> endobj 110 0 obj<> endobj 111 0 obj<>stream This is also true of some modern commentators. Hebrew does not have the same structure as English, and it does not have the large number of conjunctions, adverbs, and prepositions that English has. The vav-consecutive appears approximately 50 times in Genesis 1:1–2:4. The main point of contention is the very first word in the verse, which is usually translated as “in the beginning.” Some grammarians have observed that the first word in verse 1 does not have the definite article (the). 0000010005 00000 n Finally, there is the use of “day” (again, primarily in the plural) to indicate “time.” So, for example, in Proverbs 25:13, “the day of harvest” refers to harvest time, not to a single day. 0000008762 00000 n ]z��]$�����r{LE`����D7�`en �M���6�U�ُŨ��9�~�N�� ��BJJPZ����ظ� ! Some want to qualify that by calling it “poetic narrative” or “elevated narrative.” However, it is still narrative. In Genesis 1, however, the deepest disagreement among Hebrew experts has to do with the way the first three verses are translated. Hebrew will sometimes use the article in places where English would not, and vice versa. As would be expected, he was using an English translation. It gave the developers of the view a way of reading Genesis 1 that allowed them to hold to the old age of the earth that was being put forth by secular geologists at that time. The first is that it makes Genesis 1:2 dependent on Jeremiah 4:23, while the opposite is the case. Rather, the most serious problems are with those who know Hebrew, many of them fluent in it, yet because Genesis 1–2 is special (especially in today’s debate over millions of years and evolution), all the ordinary rules of Hebrew vocabulary, grammar, and syntax seem to be thrown out the window! If that were the case, there would be no good reason for the repeated use of the vav-consecutive, since there would be no sequence of events to report. You can also sign up for our free print newsletter (US only). : 1 And God blessed Noah and his sons, and said unto them: 'Be fruitful and multiply, and replenish the earth. For these reasons, in any detailed study of the Bible, it is important to have recourse to the original languages. Some have claimed the plural pronouns of Genesis 1.26 refer to the trinity. Its Hebrew name is the same as its first word, Bereshit ("In the beginning"). Analysis and Critical Interpretation of the Hebrew Text of the Book of Genesis, Preceded by a Hebrew Grammar, and Dissertations on the Genuineness of the Pentateuch and on the Structure of the Hebrew Language è un libro di Paul William 1804-1884Sagwan Press : acquista su IBS a 31.59€! 1 Samuel 15:11,29 It repents me that I have set up Saul to be king: for he is turned … The one consistency among the three would be that in each case the aspect from which the action is viewed is of primary importance. hebrew interpretation of genesis. Building on the previous New Answers Books, learn more about the Gospel and a young earth, death of plants and leaves, dragons, religious wars, cavemen, science, living fossils, and more. 14 The serpent is cursed. . As was mentioned above, Hebrew verbs function somewhat differently than do English verbs. 1 The serpent deceiveth Eve. These differences are of various kinds. Analysis and Critical Interpretation of the Hebrew Text of the Book of Genesis: Paul, William 1804-1884: Amazon.sg: Books It is important to note, however, that the definition of day in Genesis 1 as an ordinary day is not limited to the standard dictionaries. 1 And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them, In verse 8, the firmament is called “heavens.” Thus, while it may be the case that ancient societies saw the heavens as something solid, it does not appear that that view is necessarily being taught in Genesis 1:6. SPEDIZIONE GRATUITA su ordini idonei How Do We Know the Bible Is True? Genesis 1:22 And God blessed them, saying, Be fruitful, and multiply, and fill … Genesis 8:17 Bring forth with you every living thing that is with you, of all … Genesis 9:1,7 And God blessed Noah and his sons, and said to them, Be fruitful, … Genesis 17:16,20 And I will bless her, and give you a son also of her: yes, I will … 22 Their casting out of paradise. Does the traditional translation describe the absolute beginning of the universe? Psalm 104:2 refers to God as the one “who stretch[es] out the heavens like a curtain.” A different verb is used here than in Genesis 1:6, but the idea is the same. This consideration is strengthened by the fact that in Jeremiah 4:23 there is the additional statement that the earth had no light. The standard, traditional Christian understanding of the teaching of these chapters is not based on English mistranslations and misinterpretations. Compra Analysis and Critical Interpretation of the Hebrew Text of the Book of Genesis, Preceded By a Hebrew Grammar, and Dissertations on the Genuineness of ... of the Hebrew Language (Classic Reprint). English tense is indicated (usually) by the form of the word. This is similar in the case of Greek, too. The judgment will be so severe that it is as if the earth will be returned to its primordial state, before God began to order the creation. Grammar, literary and cultural context, the translator’s hermeneutics 6) Hermeneutics is the study of methods of textual interpretation. Genesis Chapter 1 English-Hebrew audio interlinear with Hebrew text. Some of them have to do with vocabulary. The grammar and syntax of the Hebrew in Genesis 1:1–3 allow for the differing translations provided above. It translates the beginning of verse 2 this way: “The earth was without form, and void.” By putting the comma between the two words, the translators indicate that they do not see the two words as a hendiadys. It is a midrash comprising a collection of ancient rabbinical homiletical interpretations of the Book of Genesis (B'reshith in Hebrew).. 0000005231 00000 n Click Here and Learn More About Genesis – בְּרֵאשִׁית! Consider the following prose verses from the NAS using the Hebrew relator nouns right (side), yāmîn, and left (side), sǝmō⁾l,5 where [the] indicates a missing “the” in the Hebrew. 0000009382 00000 n Claus Westermann doesn’t even discuss the possible range of meaning of yom. Essentially, it seems that outside ideas are influencing people to reinterpret Genesis 1–2 instead of reading it in a straightforward fashion in the normal sense of grammar, syntax, and vocabulary. Aside from the issue of “formless and void,” the NKJV is representative of most modern English versions. In verse 2, the subject comes first (and the earth). Many translations today use the word “expanse” to denote this. A historian translating the Bible will likely make different translation choices than, say, a Christian theologian. Grammar, as I use it here, has to do with the form and function of words, whereas syntax has to do with the structure of sentences. It can be translated “steadfast love,” “lovingkindness,” “mercy,” “faithfulness,” and some other words as well. The last view is that verse 1 is the main clause. In Leviticus 25:23, the phrase “stranger and sojourner” means “resident alien.” In Lamentations 2:9, the phrase “destroyed and broken” means “totally ruined.” In Genesis 1, there is one important example of hendiadys. 0000000796 00000 n The second problem is with the translation of the verb as “became.” The verb used here can indeed mean become, or come into being, as in Genesis 2:7, “and man became a living being.” More commonly, however, it simply means to happen. There are four ways of understanding the syntax of Genesis 1:1–3 that have been defended by various Hebrew experts. The vav-consecutive is a verb construction that is the ordinary verb form used for relating a narrative. Thus, verse 2 is very closely related to verse 1, and this close relationship does not allow for the gap needed by the gap theory. . Thus, days 4–6 do not follow days 1–3 in sequence, but take place at the same time. You are about to read the Genesis creation account and see (probably) for the first time what the text really says. A second example is the word shalom. At one point, one of the students in the class asked, “What does it say in the Greek?” The teacher’s response was, “The same thing it says in the English.” His point was not that there is no difference between Greek and English; only that in that passage the English gave an accurate and adequate presentation of the Greek. A careful reading of these versions shows that the Hebrew is being read differently by Hebrew experts. It then moves to focus on the earth, giving the reader information about the state of the earth at the very beginning of time. This would indicate the continuation of the narrative sequence. THE BOOK OF GENESIS Genesis is the first book of the Pentateuch (Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy), the first section of the Jewish and the Christian Scriptures. As would be expected, he was using an English translation. Both concordist and non-concordist interpretations of Genesis 1 arise from good motives, a desire to show that the Bible does not conflict with nature’s testimony. Two examples here might suffice. Genesis 19:17 And it came to pass, when they had brought them forth abroad, that … Proverbs 14:14 The backslider in heart shall be filled with his own ways: and a … Luke 17:31,32 In that day, he which shall be on the housetop, and his stuff in … Hebrews 10:38 Now the just shall live by faith: but if any man draw back, my soul … and. Some examples in English are law and order, assault and battery, and kith and kin. Answers in Genesis is an apologetics ministry, dedicated to helping Christians defend their faith and proclaim the gospel of Jesus Christ. ... and although several commandments are found in Genesis, e.g., circumcision and the prohibition of eating the thigh ... . The Book of Genesis, [a] the first book of the Hebrew Bible and the Christian Old Testament, is an account of the creation of the world, the early history of humanity, Israel's ancestors, and the origins of the Jewish people. Verse two is then translated “and the earth became formless and void.” The idea is that there was an original creation, perhaps many millennia ago, perhaps even millions of years ago. 0000001326 00000 n As a result, most scholars take the view that the raqiya’ is a solid expanse. To qualify my opening statement, there are many differences between Hebrew and English, and those differences can make it difficult to convey some of the subtleties of Hebrew in an English version. Often, the Hebrew text says just what it does in English. In this, it follows the KJV, but it is the only modern translation to do so. Exodus 32:14 And the LORD repented of the evil which he thought to do to his people.. The third and fourth views are represented by the standard translations such as the NKJV, the NASB, and the ESV. See also Genesis 30:14 or Joshua 3:15. Genesis 1:1 is taken as a statement regarding the original creation of the totality of the universe. See Synonyms at beginning. Let’s define some non-traditional, modern views of Genesis: We might as well begin here with the common “problem” of the definition of “day” (yom in Hebrew). At the historical level of interpretation, however, There are two fundamental problems with this view. This explanation is summarized from that of Wenham, who gives a clear and fair presentation of the evidence.9. Under this sense, day is defined by evening and morning, where the dictionary cites Genesis 1–2. As I sometimes tell my Hebrew students, “A detailed knowledge of Hebrew grammar will not answer all your questions.”, It’s important for the reader to know what is going on with the above variant translations. The traditional translation of Genesis 1:1 is well known, “In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.” It is called the traditional translation because it has been the dominant rendering of Genesis 1:1 since the Greek Septuagint, the first major translation of the Hebrew Bible (into Greek), produced by Jewish scholars in the third century BC. Phrase-for-phrase, word-for-word equivalence. Thus, a particular verb in Hebrew may be translated past tense, present tense, or even future, depending on the context. So, for example, the reader may well have heard a preacher say that when we see a “therefore” in one of Paul’s letters, we need to ask what it’s there for. The first view was first set forth by one of the medieval Jewish rabbis by the name of Ibn Ezra, but not many have adopted his view. My only request is that you pray for spiritual guidance, since the Holy Spirit can teach us what our pride usually rejects. However, more recent scholarship has seen little influence of Babylonian mythology on the organization of Genesis 1. It is conceded by all that Genesis 1 is narrative. This emphatically characterizes the passage as narrative, and it traces an extended sequence of actions throughout the section. Another example would be in the use of the definite article (the). These differences between Hebrew and English vocabulary, grammar, and syntax mean that there are always some subtleties that are lost in translation. The idea that Genesis 1:1 should begin with this kind of temporal clause (when God began to create) has also been defended by the fact that one of the Babylonian creation myths, the Enuma Elish, begins “when the heavens had not been named.” The idea here is that the author of Genesis (not Moses, in the view of those who hold to this theory) was influenced by the way in which the Babylonian myths began. They are expelled from the Garden of Eden. October 5, 2020. 0000002816 00000 n That is, “When God created . Looking to know Hebrew? Your donation will be matched up to $3.5 million! Internet Explorer is no longer supported. 0000011027 00000 n The combination of these two factors indicates that verse 2 is a descriptive clause about the noun (usually referred to as a nominal clause). That is the standard character of the vav-consecutive in other biblical narratives, such as the stories in the books of Samuel and Kings. It is only when we are faithful to the teaching of the whole Bible that we can be confident that we have not misrepresented the teaching of any one part. Eve bears children, Cain and Abel, and eventually Cain kills his brotherand is condemned to wander the earth. Privacy Policy and An expanded translation of the two verses, indicating this relationship, would be something like this: “In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. As for the earth, it was without form and void. It is simply Hebrew grammar and cannot be … בְּרֵאשִית בָּרָא. Jewish Interpretation. There were two [reasons for this] agitation: forgetting the dream and ignorance of its interpretation. ... Hebrew Interpretation. However, many scholars are unwilling to take it in that sense because of the “special” character of these chapters as viewed by modern scholars and their response to things like “millions of years.”. ��&���rZ?�ؖo���ؾ6���ֽ��׶�́šr�Ur�dd��P {�H��ka��ę�zC$�O��Հ&W���GC&�A�\nI�]z�P�ɳ���?1t�P��r���8�4�Z�jY! the earth was without form.” The second view is that verse 1 is a temporal clause subordinate to the main clause in verse 3, while verse 2 is a parenthetical comment. Some would suggest that an accurate literal translation would be: "beginning filled the Gods the heavens and the earth." It can mean health, well-being, and satisfaction, as well as simply absence of conflict (at least seven different English words are used to translate it in the KJV). 0000003477 00000 n ses 1. Other Hebrew dictionaries, including the most recent, set out essentially the same range of meanings for the word yom. As Wenham says, “And + noun (=earth) indicates that v 2 is a disjunctive clause. This site is protected by reCAPTCHA and the Google 0000001531 00000 n However, the first two options at least leave room for, and probably demand, the idea of matter existing before creation. Though the gap theory7 probably originated in some form well before the 19th century, it became popular in that century as a way to provide concordance between the reading of Genesis 1 and the idea of an old earth (much older than five or six thousand years) that was being put forward by the secular geologists of the day. Toggle navigation. At one point, one of the students in the class asked, “What does it say in the Greek?” The teacher’s response was, “The same thing it says in the English.” His point was not that there is no difference between Greek and English; only that in that passage the English gave an accurate and adequate presentation of the Greek. Gap Theory: Separate Genesis 1:1 and 1:2 and put a large gap of time between these verses to accommodate long ages. 0000010595 00000 n x�b```�V�)� cc`a������K^4,m�Z`^�����b��q����:�p�4� H�tRMo�0�#��H%��[�[�U�RIO��Ā��F�)˿�q�,H�o��=���P A knowledge of Hebrew vocabulary, grammar, and syntax is important for providing the basis for an accurate understanding of what the opening chapters of the Bible teach. 0000007577 00000 n If this phrase is indeed a hendiadys, it seriously undercuts one aspect of the framework hypothesis.6 The framework hypothesis generally takes the phrase as two separate words, the first meaning “unformed” and the second meaning “unfilled.” Days 1–3 then deal with the forming of the various elements of creation, while days 4–6 deal with their filling. God. One is the Hebrew word hesed. One other element having to do with vocabulary should also be discussed here. But both types of interpretations have their pitfalls. The second view was adopted by the medieval rabbi Rashi, though it may have been set out earlier. 15 The promised seed. It indicates the first act of creation, which is then continued in the following verses. Hebrew verbs, on the other hand, have an aspect-based system. English Both Hebrew. It is represented by all three of the alternate translations given above. It is derived from a verb that means “to hammer out” or “to flatten.” It is usually used in reference to metal that has been flattened out by hammering or beating. In the material already discussed, there has been a fair amount of unity in the views of Hebrew experts. However, there are other examples where this same word is used without a definite article, yet it is clearly definite in sense (see Isaiah 46:10, where even the NRSV translates: “declaring the end from the beginning”). Fast and free shipping free returns cash on delivery available on eligible purchase. As an example here, in John 2:4, Jesus says to Mary, “Woman, what does your concern have to do with Me?” For most English readers, that may sound as if Jesus is being rude to His mother.

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