qualitative analysis in case study

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Qualitative data coding . In this paper, we argue that it is worthwile to triangulate analysis strategies within a case study. Cross-case analysis enables case study researchers to delineate the combination of factors that may have contributed to the outcomes of the case, seek or construct an explanation as to why one case is different or the same as others, make sense of puzzling or unique findings, or further articulate the concepts, hypotheses, or theories discovered or constructed from the original case. 137-174). Rowley, MA: Newbury House. In R. A. Kaplan (Ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Be cautious about drawing unwarranted inferences because of the small sample size, particularly if the case is not typical of others in the same set. ), Talking to learn: Conversations in second language acquisition (pp. Identification of the case. In TESOL, a case typically refers to a person, either a learner or a teacher, or an entity, such as a school, a university, a classroom, or a program (see Faltis, 1997; Johnson, 1992; Nunan, 1992). How thematic analysis works. Abstract . Case study research: Design and methods. In R. R. Day (Ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. 236-247). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer. The “event” is understood as an integrated system in operation, why it requires an analysis that gets interpret and reconstruct the system. Schmidt, R. W., & Frota, S. N. (1986). It may be worthwhile to consult case participants for their interpretation of (nontechnical) data or findings. However, in many of the qualitative case studies we reviewed, sufficient details in research design, data collection, and data analysis were missing. Acknowledging multiple realities in qualitative case studies, as is now commonly done, involves discerning the various perspectives of the researcher, the case/participant, and others, which may or may not converge (Yin, 1994). The data are generally nonnumerical. Context. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Read on to learn more differences between qualitative and quantitative analysis in Data Science. The art of case study research. For instance, there are studies that do not offer sampling logic or a description of the analysis through which research out-comes are drawn. Outlook. Establishing a trusting relationship with research participants, using multiple elicitation tasks (data collection procedures), obtaining adequate relevant background information about case participants and sites, and having access to or contact with the case over a period of time are, in general, all highly desirable. The writer's ability to provide a compelling and engaging profile of the case, with suitable examples and linkages to broader issues, is also very important. Case study research may feature single cases or multiple cases (e.g., often two to four). The use of qualitative content analysis in case study research pdf. Case study methods in researching language and education. A case study is a research method common in social science. Qualitative research methods are designed in a manner that help reveal the behavior and perception of a target audience with reference to a particular topic. 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Style for a research paper often abbr crossword analysis Qualitative case study in foreign policy case study Qualitative case analysis in study give back to community essay research paper on the zodiac killer, sample bar essay questions, texas a&m essay requirements 2020 write a short essay on responsibility, essay writing on freedom fighters in telugu. This article presents some guidance by cataloging nine different techniques for case selection: typical, diverse, extreme, deviant, influential, crucial, pathway, most similar, and most different. Case study research in applied linguistics. Second language acquisition: A book of readings. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. If multiple cases are used, researchers often provide a detailed account of each and then some form of cross-case comparison, either in prose or in a tabular summary (Creswell, 1998). Reports of case studies submitted to TESOL Quarterly should include the following elements: References and Further Reading on Case Study Research. Acknowledging multiple realities in qualitative case studies, as is now commonly done, involves discerning the various perspectives of the researcher, the case/participant, and others, which … Although widely used, the qualitative case study method is not well understood. To do a case study in qualitative research, carefully select a specific subject and use appropriate data collection methods and analysis to attempt to understand the subject and surrounding circumstances -- also called context. Establishing the significance or importance of themes or findings is crucial; the discussion should ideally link these themes explicitly to larger theoretical and practical issues. ), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. Please choose from an option shown below. Sign into your Profile to find your Reading Lists and Saved Searches. Background: There is often little detail in case study research about how data were analysed. The case study is a descriptive qualitative methodology that is used as a tool to study something specific in a complex phenomenon. Provide sufficient evidence for your claims or interpretations to make them clear, credible, and convincing to others. Faltis, C. (1997). The case study approach allows in-depth, multi-faceted explorations of complex issues in their real-life settings. Qualitative research relies on data obtained by the researcher from first-hand observation, interviews, questionnaires, focus groups, participant-observation, recordings made in natural settings, documents, and artifacts. Creswell, J. W. (1998). al. Aim: To illustrate an approach to data analysis in qualitative case study methodology. Please note that some file types are incompatible with some mobile and tablet devices. Qualitative data analysis: A sourcebook of new methods (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Data reduction may include quantification or other means of data aggregation and reduction, including the use of data matrices, tables, and figures (Miles & Huberman, 1994). (1978). In the qualitative phase, I analyzed the data … Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Schmidt, R. (1983). The richness of case studies is related to the amount of detail and contextualization that is possible when only one or a small number of focal cases and issues are analyzed. 2016 and case study opposite). analysis, the cases, and the theory of change means QCA is an iterative process, usually involving several rounds of within-case analysis and cross-case comparisons (see Scholz et. Step 2: Identifying themes, patterns and relationships.Unlike quantitative methods, in qualitative data analysis there are no universally applicable techniques that can be applied to generate findings.Analytical and critical thinking skills of researcher plays significant role in data analysis in qualitative studies. Case study research can mean single and multiple case studies, can include quantitative evidence, relies on multiple sources of evidence, and benefits from the prior development of theoretical propositions. Sampling. Research methods in education (4th ed.). 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(Ed.). Purposeful sampling is generally used in case study research; therefore, explain sampling procedures and case selection, and the defining characteristics and typicality or atypicality of the case: Note whether the case in question is a deviant or extreme case, a critical case, a convenience case, a politically significant case, and so on (Creswell, 1998; Miles & Huberman, 1994). Merriam, S. B. Instead, the researcher attempts to identify important patterns and themes in the data. As an interpretive, inductive form of research, case studies explore the details and meanings of experience and do not usually attempt to test a priori hypotheses. This implies that qualitative data analysis of case studies is complex and requires flexibility, experience, and skill. Doing qualitative research: A practical handbook. Because attrition may deeply affect longitudinal case studies based on just one or two participants, sampling carefully is crucial. Provide sufficient contextual information about the case, including relevant biographical and social information (depending on the focus), such as ESL learning/teaching history, L1 background, years of residence in a new country, data collection site(s), or other relevant descriptive information pertaining to the case and situation. Multiple cases are often preferable to single cases, particularly when the cases may not be representative of the population from which they are drawn and when a range of behaviors/profiles, experiences, outcomes, or situations is desirable. However, it is important that comprehensive analysis procedures are used because there are often large sets of data from multiple sources of evidence. Cohen, L., & Manion, L. (1994). Both approaches are legitimate but require sufficient detail and contextualization. Even when conducting a series of case studies, comparisons between two or more case… The value of the case study approach is well recognised in the fields of business, law and policy, but somewhat less so in health services research. First, case study research as a research strategy within qualitative social research is briefly presented. 13-23). The use of qualitative content analysis in case study research pdf rating. Once a satisfactory solution has been achieved the results of the QCA study can then be published or used in other ways. Case study research in TESOL and second language acquisition (SLA) has its origins in psychology and linguistics (e.g., Hatch, 1978), with a focus on the development of L2 syntax, morphology, phonology, and so on, as analyzed by an ostensibly objective researcher. Case study research produces vast amounts of data. Having additional coders is highly desirable (but is less common in qualitative research than in quantitative research), especially in structural analyses of discourse, texts, syntactic structures, or interaction patterns involving high-inference categories leading ultimately to the quantification of types of items within categories. There need to be a framework that can help facilitate analysis of the data. Palys, T. (1997). ... analysis (case) is can be a challenge for both novice and seasoned researchers alike. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Data analysis may begin informally during interviews or observations and continue during transcription, when recurring themes, patterns, and categories become evident. Approaches to research in second language learning. Interaction, acculturation and the acquisition of communicative competence: A case study of an adult. Data in SLA studies may be somewhat more restricted (either interviews, tests, writing samples, think-aloud protocols, or grammaticality judgments), and the analytic focus may be narrower and more technical as well, such as the development of linguistic or rhetorical structures in oral or written L2 production. Gall, M. D., Borg, W. R., & Gall, J. P. (1996). ), The Oxford handbook of applied linguistics (pp. London: Longman. 145-152). Qualitative case study methodology provides tools for researchers to study complex phenomena within their contexts. Most browsers automatically accept cookies, but if you prefer, you can opt out by changing your browser settings. Research methods in language learning. Thematic analysis in qualitative research provides a sophisticated tool to achieve that goal. Qualitative research methods are ways of investigating a topic to gain a deeper understanding and generate new theories and ideas. Stake, R. E. (1994). Case studies may be included in larger quantitative or qualitative studies to provide a concrete illustration of findings, or they may be conducted independently, either longitudinally or in a more limited temporal period. Developing basic conversational ability in a second language: A case study of an adult learner of Portuguese. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. However, it is important that comprehensive analysis procedures are used because there are often large sets of data from multiple sources of evidence. Unlike ethnographic research, case studies do not necessarily focus on cultural aspects of a group or its members. Once written records are available, analysis involves the coding of data and the identification of salient points or structures. newspaper articles, photographs, official records). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. London: Routledge. Duff, P. (2002). In qualitative research data analysis is the most complex part of study. A cookie is a small piece of code that gives your computer a unique identity, but it does not contain any information that allows us to identify you personally. It is the analysis of the qualitative component of this study that forms the basis of the discussion contained herewith. Qualitative analysis was used to examine the interview transcripts and derive fundamental categories that summarized the underlying thematic structure. Essay sports topics. Research approaches in applied linguistics. Case studies are the most popular qualitative methods of data analysis.A case study method focuses on the in depth study of a single, usually complex series of events, that make up a case. In N. Hornberger & D. Corson (Eds. Rowley, MA: Newbury House. Hatch, E. In qualitative research, the context informs the research question. a statement of the study's purpose and the theoretical context, a detailed description of the case(s) and explanation of decisions related to sampling and selection, context of the study and case history, where relevant, issues of access to the site/participants and the relationship between you and the research participant (case), evidence that you obtained informed consent, that the participants' identities and privacy are protected, and, ideally, that participants benefited in some way from taking part in the study, methods of data collection and analysis, either manual or computer-based data management and analysis (see Weitzman & Miles, 1995), or other equipment and procedures used, findings, which may take the form of major emergent themes, developmental stages, or an in-depth discussion of each case in relation to the research questions; and illustrative quotations or excerpts and sufficient amounts of other data to establish the validity and credibility of the analysis and interpretations, a discussion of factors that might have influenced the interpretation of data in undesired, unanticipated, or conflicting ways, a consideration of the connection between the case study and larger theoretical and practical issues in the field. Qualitative Case Study Guidelines Saša Baškarada Joint and Operations Analysis Division Defence Science and Technology Organisation DSTO-GD-0773 ABSTRACT This report presents guidelines for conducting qualitative case studies. The case study example within this article was part of a mixed method project which contained a qualitative approach to interpreting interview data using thematic analysis. According to Merriam (1998, 2009), qualitative case studies can be defined as processes, a unit of analysis, or as the output or product of the research. Nike inc case study questions. Educational research: An introduction (6th ed.). Login or create a profile so that you can create alerts and save clips, playlists, and searches. Data. Case study research may feature single cases or multiple cases (e.g., often two to four). ), Sociolinguistics and second language acquisition (pp. The following guidelines are provided for submissions reporting case study research aimed at understanding a bounded phenomenon by examining in depth, and in a holistic manner, one or more particular instances of the phenomenon. Uncommon Perspective. However, generalization to populations is not appropriate or desirable in most case studies. QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS 4.1 INTRODUCTION In this chapter, I describe the qualitative analysis of the data, including the practical steps involved in the analysis. Quantitative data analysis includes information about quantities and numbers, as far as qualitative data applies to things which can be observed but not measured. Case study data analysis generally involves an iterative, spiraling, or cyclical process that proceeds from more general to more specific observations (Creswell, 1998; Palys, 1997; Silverman, 2000). Silverman, D. (2000). A quantitative analysis of the data follows in Chapter 5. Young L2 learners or others who are not highly proficient in their L2 may not have the maturity or the linguistic competence to convey their perspectives easily; in some cases, an assistant who can speak the participant's L1 to explain the research purposes and elicit the participant's views in their L1 may be helpful, depending on the focus of the study (Duff, in press). Stake, R. E. (1995). Yin’s case study process is elaborated on and additional principles from the wider literature are integrated. Case studies may involve both qualitative and quantitative research methods. There are different types of qualitative research methods like an in-depth interview, focus groups, ethnographic research, content analysis, case study research that are usually used. Duff, P. (in press). 237-322). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Copy and paste the following HTML into your website. Qualitative methods include ethnography, grounded theory, discourse analysis, and interpretative phenomenological analysis. This paper tried to explore and discuss the possibilities of using qualitative content analysis in case study research. (1998). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five traditions. Johnson, D. M. (1992). (1995). Nunan, D. (1992). Draw data either from one primary source (e.g., oral interviews, journals, or essays) or from multiple sources. Data may be analyzed and interpreted through a variety of ideological lenses (e.g., positivist, poststructuralist, feminist, or critical (Duff, 2002; Merriam, 1998; Yin, 1994), although descriptive/interpretive approaches are still the most common in TESOL. This article presents the case study as a type of qualitative research. As in ethnography, bringing together (triangulating) multiple perspectives, methods, and sources of information (e.g., from interviews, observations, field notes, self-reports or think-aloud protocols, tests, transcripts, and other documents) adds texture, depth, and multiple insights to an analysis and can enhance the validity or credibility of the results. Qualitative Case Study Guidelines . Case study research produces vast amounts of data. The main feature of the grounded theory, which differentiates it from other qualitative data analysis methods is its focus on theory development . It also indicates that if the researcher is starting from a quantitative database, then methods for finding influential outliers can be used. The study focuses on all aspects and dimensions of the case in question, aimed at illustrating viewpoints or theories rather than making comparisons. Not only does it lead to a better and more thorough understanding, it adds to the validity of the analysis as well. Aim To illustrate an approach to data analysis in qualitative case study methodology.. Background There is often little detail in case study research about how data were analysed. Please log in from an authenticated institution or log into your member profile to access the email feature. If you encounter a problem downloading a file, please try again from a laptop or desktop. Computer programs for qualitative data analysis: A software sourcebook. It’s often used with a theory testing approach, where no such case study has been done before, so new explanations are likely to be generated using phenomenology or grounded theory. Qualitative research and case study applications in education. Grounded theory is one of the most popular qualitative strategies that leads to a general, abstract theory of a process or action grounded in the views of people that participate in a study. This implies that qualitative data analysis of case studies is complex and requires flexibility, experience, and skill. In multiple case studies, each case may represent a different thematic finding, such as a different type of learner, teacher, or program (e.g., highly successful vs. less successful, domestic vs. international), which you may also portray as a clustering of properties or even a metaphor; alternatively, you may analyze and discuss each of the cases in terms of a small number of pervasive and important themes that run across them to varying degrees. This website uses cookies. Sometimes a case study will also collect quantitative data. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds. Case studies tend to focus on qualitative data using methods such as interviews, observations, and analysis of primary and secondary sources (e.g.

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