what types of environmental factors that affect health
© Dr Paul Wilkinson 2009, Rebecca Close and Helen Crabbe 2016. Recent estimates of the global burdens of disease from environmental factors shows that the greatest burdens relate to unsafe drinking water, poor sanitation & hygiene, and to pollution of the indoor and outdoor air. The following notes concentrate on the physical, chemical and biological environment, and give less emphasis to broader socio-economic influences. Ho… Environmental stress theory is the body of science that analyzes how stress factors (stressors) from the environment affect people, communities, and cultures. Environmental health. The Lancet , Volume 380, Issue 9859, 15 December 2012–4 January 2013, Pages 2197–2223. Environmental health is focused on the natural and built environments for the benefit of human health. Each of these factors affects provision of care and how health technologies are used. The environment may be taken to encompass all external factors and conditions that affect people’s lives. Last (Dictionary of Epidemiology, OUP) defines the environment as 'all that is external to the human host'. People often assume that genetics and healthcare are the most important factors in health. Hazardous substances found in the air, soil and water can originate from a variety of sources, such as agricultural and industrial activities, mining operations, landfills and leaky underground storage tanks. 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident which resulted in the release of a plume of radioactive dust which drifted over the western Soviet Union (especially the Ukraine and Belarus), parts of Europe and eastern North America. Water pollution is a serious epidemic that directly affects the health of humans, animals and plants. Hazardous substances found in the air, soil and water can originate from a variety of sources, such as agricultural and industrial activities, mining operations, landfills and leaky underground storage tanks. Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 Collaborators. These may include where a person goes to school and how much education a person gets. Cultural beliefs affect how individuals perceive health and illness, beliefs about how diseases are caused, and how to treat health concerns. Many things in the environment can affect our health. Types of Environmental Stress. Nature. The WGBC’s ‘Health, Wellbeing and Productivity in Retail’ report identified ten key building environmental factors that impact the Health, Wellbeing and Productivity of people. To some degree, individuals and communities share an economic environment, such as in neighborhoods where most of the population lives in extreme poverty or affluent neighborhoods where each community member enjoys the benefits of easily accessed resources. But estimates suggest that somewhere between a quarter and a third of the global burden of disease and premature death is attributable to direct environmental risk factors. The Ultimate List of Environmental Factors Affecting Skin Health by Dr. Karen Reed Ph. High income populations have, for the most part, reduced these risks, but contribute disproportionately to global problems, including greenhouse gas emissions, persistent organic pollutants (POPs), ozone-depleting gases, and urban non-biodegradable waste. Such activity is reducing biodiversity at an unprecedented speed, depleting non-replenishable resources, and altering the gaseous composition of the lower and middle atmosphere. It influences all aspects of physical appearance such as height, weight, body structure, the colour of the eye, the texture of the hair, and even intelligence and aptitudes. This is sometimes referred to as the 'environmental Kuznets' curve (figure). Of course, heredity and personal behaviors also play a significant role in an individual’s health. The types of reviews most useful for HIA practitioners are those that look into both the positive and negative impacts of an intervention; those that describe how poor health outcomes may be reversed; those that describe how a proposal may act on inequalities; and economic evidence. Of course, there are other factors that have a strong impact on personal health and well-being. 1984 Bhopal disaster, in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh, often considered the world's worst industrial disaster, in which a release of 40 tonnes of methyl isocyanate gas from a subsidiary plant of the Union Carbide company killed several thousand people, many instantly, and injured many more. Disability adjusted life years: the sum of the years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLL) in the population and the years lost due to disability (YLD) for incident cases of the health condition. According to the United Nations Environment Programme, the earth’s resources are being consumed at an unsustainable rate and air pollution is one of the biggest environmental health risks across the globe.Beyond affecting the seas, wildlife and forests around the world, environmental factors take their toll on human health and wellness too. Environmental Agents | The NIEHS provides information about chemicals or factors in the environment to which humans are exposed that may cause adverse health effects Acrylamide It can also be formed when certain foods are cooked at high temperatures. D. Thursday, January 25, 2018 Dryness, skin rashes, premature aging, acne, and eczema may all be the result of environmental factors that influence your skin. Having easy access to a park or green space is an environmental factor that can affect health in positive ways. These concerns often received prominence with serious pollution episodes, some examples of which are: The occurrence of key environmental incidents and accidents raise public concern and often lead to new trends in research and interest on the effect of the environment on health. At the same time, people in more deprived areas, who tend to consume fewer resources, are typically responsible for fewer of the emissions that cause environmental contamination. Sleep deprivation. Environmental policies are considered the major external factor that can … Indoor Air Pollution Half of the world’s households use biomass fuels, including wood, animal dung, or crop residues, that produce particulates, carbon monoxide, and other indoor pollutants. The lineup […], Keeping Your Office Building Sanitary During COVID-19, What Working Americans Need To Know About Back Pain. Water containing lead, often caused by the lead pipes used in older construction, can … Environmental health has been defined by the World Health Organization as aspects of human health and diseases that are determined by environmental factors. And many hospitals and healthcare settings are applying these findings. A person’s culture is his or her pattern of customs, behaviors, and ideas that are shared by specific people or society. Serge Morand, Claire Lajaunie, in Biodiversity and Health, 2018. In the 1970s and 1980s, Thomas McKeown, a physician and historian of medicine, published the idea that increased life expectancy and growing populations were due more to improvements in standards of living, diet, and nutrition, than to medical advancements. Among the more prominent effects with potential bearing on human health are: Global change should be distinguished from globalisation, which refers to the processes that lead to increasing flows of people, goods, information and ideas across the world. For example, if you live in a neighborhood with unsafe sidewalks or polluted air, it’s difficult to get outside and exercise. External factors pertain to the direct outer environment, the geographical location and micro-organisms that could affect an individual's health. The international Global Burden of Disease initiative has attempted to derive estimates of mortality and disability adjusted life years (DALYs) for selected causes. In 2014, WHO estimate that diarrhoeal disease accounts for approximately 3.6% of the total DALY global burden of disease, and of this it is estimated that 58% is attributable to unsafe water supply, sanitation and hygiene, most of which is in developing countries (WHO 2014). However, community leaders, hoping to influence public health policies, continue to research community factors that affect public health. The effects of global climate change are expected to grow substantially over time. Environmental stress theory is the body of science that analyzes how stress factors (stressors) from the environment affect people, communities, and cultures. Environmental health is a branch of public health that addresses all aspects of the broader environment that can affect human health. Consuming water that is saturated with waste can be toxic, but more and more bodies of water are in danger of becoming polluted due to things like oil spills, industrial plants and general sewage. According to the Environmental Protection Agency, air pollution can interfere with heart health, triggering heart attacks, stroke or an irregular heart rhythm. The social determinants that affect public health include all the conditions in which people live, work, learn, and play. And many hospitals and healthcare settings are applying these findings. 06480440], 1c - Health Care Evaluation and Health Needs Assessment, 2b - Epidemiology of Diseases of Public Health Significance, 2h - Principles and Practice of Health Promotion, 2i - Disease Prevention, Models of Behaviour Change, 4a - Concepts of Health and Illness and Aetiology of Illness, 5a - Understanding Individuals,Teams and their Development, 5b - Understanding Organisations, their Functions and Structure, 5d - Understanding the Theory and Process of Strategy Development, 5f Finance, Management Accounting and Relevant Theoretical Approaches, Past Papers (available on the FPH website), Applications of health information for practitioners, Applications of health information for specialists, Population health information for practitioners, Population health information for specialists, Sickness and Health Information for specialists, 1. Roll over the bars on this chart to see how each category affects overall health. This is often labelled the issue of environmental justice (or injustice). It can be taken to include anything except genetic factors, but is usually thought of as including physico-chemical, biological, social and cultural factors, which individually and in combination influence human health and well-being. Preventing diarrhoea through better water, sanitation and hygiene. These beliefs also affect how pain and illness are viewed and treated. 1956 episode of organic mercury poisoning in Minamata, Japan, which arose from the release of methyl mercury in the industrial wastewater from a chemical factory, and its bioaccumulation in shellfish and fish in Minamata Bay, which were then when eaten by the local population. The factors, which affect human health and cause disease, can be dividing into two categories: Intrinsic or Internal Factors. Residents therefore often face the combined hazards of poor sanitation, unsafe drinking water, precarious housing, dangerous roadways, polluted ambient and indoor air, and toxic wastes. For physical quality of life, the only two significant environmental factors were housing and nuisances. http://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780195314496.001.0001... http://economics.about.com/cs/economicsglossary/g/kuznets_curve.htm, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140673612616894, The effects of global warming and climate change, The health problems associated with poor housing and home conditions, inadequate water supplies, flooding, poor sanitation and water pollution, Methods for monitoring and control of environmental hazards (including food and water safety, atmospheric pollution and other toxic hazards, noise, and ionising and electromagnetic radiation) and cluster investigations, The use of legislation in environmental control, Appreciation of factors affecting health and safety at work (including the control of substances hazardous to health), Transport policies and health impact assessment for environmental pollution ; air pollution, Identifying and managing internal and external stakeholder interests, Management models and theories associated with motivation, leadership and change management, and their application to practical situations and problems, Dietary Reference Values (DRVs), current dietary goals, recommendations, guidelines and the evidence for them, Section 1: The theoretical perspectives and methods of enquiry of the sciences concerned with human behaviour, Inequalities in health (e.g. Occur independently pollution in the sections below over time surroundings and external,! 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